Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

ORIGIN

The ORIGIN attribute records where the route came from. The options can be IBGP, EBGP, or incomplete. This information is important because internal routes (IBGP) are by default higher priority than external routes (EBGP). However incomplete ORIGINs are the lowest priority of the three.

The commands related to ORIGIN include:

config router route-map edit <route_map_name>

set comments <string>

config rule

edit <route_map_rule_id>

set match-origin {egp | igp | incomplete | none}

end end

end

 

How BGP works

BGP is a link-state routing protocol and keeps link-state information about the status of each network link it has connected. A BGP router receives information from its peer routers that have been defined as neighbors. BGP routers listen for updates from these configured neighboring routers on TCP port 179.

A BGP router is a finite state machine with six various states for each connection. As two BGP routers discover each other, and establish a connection they go from the idle state, through the various states until they reach the established state. An error can cause the connection to be dropped and the state of the router to be reset to either active or idle. These errors can be caused by: TCP port 179 not being open, a random TCP port above port 1023 not being open, the peer address being incorrect, or the AS number being incorrect.

When BGP routers start a connection, they negotiate which (if any) optional features will be used such as multiprotocol extensions that can include IPv6 and VPNs.

 

IBGP versus EBGP

When you read about BGP, often you see EBGP or IBGP mentioned. These are both BGP routing, but BGP used in different roles. Exterior BGP (EBGP) involves packets crossing multiple autonomous systems (ASes) where interior BGP (IBGP) involves packets that stay within a single AS. For example the AS_PATH attribute is only useful for EBGP where routes pass through multiple ASes.

These two modes are important because some features of BGP are only used for one of EBGP or IBGP. For example confederations are used in EBGP, and route reflectors are only used in IBGP. Also routes learned from IBGP have priority over EBGP learned routes.

FortiGate units have some commands specific to EBGP. These include:

  • automatically resetting the session information to external peers if the connection goes down — set fast- external-failover {enable | disable}
  • setting an administrative distance for all routes learned from external peers (must also configure local and internal distances if this is set) — set distance-external <distance_integer>
  • enforcing EBGP multihops and their TTL (number of hops) — set ebgp-enforce-multihop {enable | disable} and set ebgp-multihop-ttl <seconds_integer>

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6 thoughts on “Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

  1. Hi Mike,
    if i configure the following on fortigate1:
    config router bgp
    set as 65000
    set router-id 10.2.2.254
    config neighbor
    edit “10.2.2.253”
    set next-hop-self enable
    set remote-as 65000
    set send-community6 disable
    next

    config redistribute “static”
    set status enable
    end

    fortigate2 should get the default route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 from fortigate1 as it is static ?

    how can i redistribute the default route(fortigate1) to fortigate2 ?

    thanks
    regards

    • There is a really good KB article that explains how to do this. You can find it here

      If you want to redistribute static routes you would enable the following

      config router bgp
      config redistribute static
      set status enable
      end
      end

      An example of the config would be like this

      config router prefix-list
      edit “only_dflt”
      config rule
      edit 1
      set prefix 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
      unset ge
      unset le
      next
      end
      next
      end

      config router route-map
      edit “only_default_route”
      config rule
      edit 1
      set match-ip-address “only_dflt”
      next
      end
      next
      end

      config router bgp
      set as 2
      config neighbor
      edit 10.142.0.110
      set remote-as 1
      set route-map-in “only_default_route”
      next
      end

      set router-id 10.142.0.205
      end

      Let me know if this helped answer your question!

      Thanks!

  2. config router bgp
    set as 65041
    set router-id 162.53.156.138
    config neighbor
    edit “10.104.55.1”
    set ebgp-enforce-multihop enable
    set soft-reconfiguration enable
    set remote-as 64699
    set send-community6 disable
    next
    edit “10.104.55.2”
    set ebgp-enforce-multihop enable
    set soft-reconfiguration enable
    set remote-as 64699
    set send-community6 disable
    next

    i am trying to accomplish above but i can see only one neighbour is establish and other is in ACTIVE state…

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