Wireless network examples

Wireless network examples

This chapter provides an example wireless network configuration.

Basic wireless network A more complex example

Basic wireless network

This example uses automatic configuration to set up a basic wireless network.

To configure this wireless network, you must:

l Configure authentication for wireless users l Configure the SSID (WiFi network interface) l Add the SSID to the FortiAP Profile l Configure the firewall policy l Configure and connect FortiAP units

Configuring authentication for wireless users

You need to configure user accounts and add the users to a user group. This example shows only one account, but multiple accounts can be added as user group members.

To configure a WiFi user – web-based manager

  1. Go to User & Device > User Definition and select Create New.
  2. Select Local User and then click Next.
  3. Enter a User Name and Password and then click Next.
  4. Click
  5. Make sure that Enable is selected and then click Create.

To configure the WiFi user group – web-based manager

  1. Go to User & Device > User Groups and select Create New.
  2. Enter the following information and then select OK:
Name wlan_users
Type Firewall
Members Add users.

To configure a WiFi user and the WiFi user group – CLI

config user user edit “user01”

Basic wireless network

set type password set passwd “asdf12ghjk”

end

config user group edit “wlan_users” set member “user01”

end

Configuring the SSID

First, establish the SSID (network interface) for the network. This is independent of the number of physical access points that will be deployed. The network assigns IP addresses using DHCP.

To configure the SSID – web-based manager

  1. Go to WiFi & Switch Controller > SSID and select Create New > SSID.
  2. Enter the following information and select OK:
Interface Name                                  example_wifi_if
Traffic Mode                                      Tunnel to Wireless Controller
IP/Network Mask                                10.10.110.1/24
Administrative Access                      Ping (to assist with testing)
DHCP Server                                     Enable
Address Range 10.10.110.2 – 10.10.110.199
Netmask 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway Same As Interface IP
DNS Server Same as System DNS
SSID                                                 example_wifi
Security Mode                                   WPA2 Enterprise
Authentication                                  Local, select wlan_users user group.
Leave other settings at their default values.

To configure the SSID – CLI

config wireless-controller vap edit example_wifi_if set ssid “example_wifi” set broadcast-ssid enable set security wpa-enterprise set auth usergroup set usergroup wlan_users set schedule always

end config system interface

Basic wireless network

edit example_wifi_if set ip 10.10.110.1 255.255.255.0

end

config system dhcp server edit 0 set default-gateway 10.10.110.1

set dns-service default set interface “example_wifi_if” config ip-range edit 1 set end-ip 10.10.110.199 set start-ip 10.10.110.2

end

set netmask 255.255.255.0

end

Adding the SSID to the FortiAP Profile

The radio portion of the FortiAP configuration is contained in the FortiAP Profile. By default, there is a profile for each platform (FortiAP model). You can create additional profiles if needed. The SSID needs to be specified in the profile.

To add the SSID to the FortiAP Profile – web-based manager

  1. Go to WiFi & Switch Controller > FortiAP Profiles and edit the profile for your model of FortiAP unit.
  2. In Radio 1 and Radio 2, add example_wifi in SSID.
  3. Select OK.

Configuring security policies

A security policy is needed to enable WiFi users to access the Internet on port1. First you create firewall address for the WiFi network, then you create the example_wifi to port1 policy.

To create a firewall address for WiFi users – web-based manager

  1. Go to Policy & Objects > Addresses.
  2. Select Create New > Address, enter the following information and select OK.
Name wlan_user_net
Type IP/Netmask
Subnet / IP Range 10.10.110.0/24
Interface example_wifi_if
Show in Address List Enabled

To create a firewall address for WiFi users – CLI

config firewall address edit “wlan_user_net” set associated-interface “example_wifi_if”

Basic wireless network

set subnet 10.10.110.0 255.255.255.0

end

To create a security policy for WiFi users – web-based manager

  1. Go to Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policyand select Create New.
  2. Enter the following information and select OK:
Incoming Interface                  example_wifi_if
Source Address                      wlan_user_net
Outgoing Interface                  port1
Destination Address                All
Schedule                                always
Service                                   ALL
Action                                    ACCEPT
NAT                                       ON. Select Use Destination Interface Address (default).
Leave other settings at their default values.

To create a firewall policy for WiFi users – CLI

config firewall policy edit 0 set srcintf “example_wifi” set dstintf “port1” set srcaddr “wlan_user_net” set dstaddr “all” set schedule always set service ALL set action accept set nat enable

end

Connecting the FortiAP units

You need to connect each FortiAP unit to the FortiGate unit, wait for it to be recognized, and then assign it to the AP Profile. But first, you must configure the interface to which the FortiAP units connect and the DHCP server that assigns their IP addresses.

In this example, the FortiAP units connect to port 3 and are controlled through IP addresses on the 192.168.8.0/24 network.

To configure the interface for the AP unit – web-based manager

  1. Go to Network > Interfaces and edit the port3 interface.

2. Set the Addressing mode to Dedicated to Extension Device and set the IP/Network Mask to

Basic wireless network

192.168.8.1/255.255.255.0.

  1. Select OK.

This procedure automatically configures a DHCP server for the AP units.

To configure the interface for the AP unit – CLI

config system interface edit port3 set mode static

set ip 192.168.8.1 255.255.255.0

end

To configure the DHCP server for AP units – CLI

config system dhcp server edit 0 set interface port3 config exclude-range edit 1 set end-ip 192.168.8.1 set start-ip 192.168.8.1

end

config ip-range edit 1 set end-ip 192.168.8.254 set start-ip 192.168.8.2

end set netmask 255.255.255.0 set vci-match enable set vci-string “FortiAP”

end

To connect a FortiAP unit – web-based manager

  1. Go to WiFi & Switch Controller > Managed FortiAPs.
  2. Connect the FortiAP unit to port 3.
  3. Periodically select Refresh while waiting for the FortiAP unit to be listed.

Recognition of the FortiAP unit can take up to two minutes.

If FortiAP units are connected but cannot be recognized, try disabling VCI-Match in the DHCP server settings.

  1. When the FortiAP unit is listed, select the entry to edit it. The Edit Managed Access Point window opens.
  2. In State, select
  3. In FortiAP Profile, select the default profile for the FortiAP model.
  4. Select OK.
  5. Repeat Steps 2 through 8 for each FortiAP unit.

To connect a FortiAP unit – CLI

  1. Connect the FortiAP unit to port 3.
  2. Enter config wireless-controller wtp

 

  1. Wait 30 seconds, then enter get.

Retry the get command every 15 seconds or so until the unit is listed, like this:

== [ FAP22B3U10600118 ] wtp-id: FAP22B3U10600118

  1. Edit the discovered FortiAP unit like this:

edit FAP22B3U10600118 set admin enable

end

  1. Repeat Steps 2 through 4 for each FortiAP unit.

A more complex example

This example creates multiple networks and uses custom AP profiles.

Scenario

In this example, Example Co. provides two wireless networks, one for its employees and the other for customers or other guests of its business. Guest users have access only to the Internet, not to the company’s private network. The equipment for these WiFi networks consists of FortiAP-220B units controlled by a FortiGate unit.

The employee network operates in 802.11n mode on both the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands. Client IP addresses are in the 10.10.120.0/24 subnet, with 10.10.120.1 the IP address of the WAP. The guest network also operates in 802.11n mode, but only on the 2.4GHz band. Client IP addresses are on the 10.10.115.0/24 subnet, with 10.10.115.1 the IP address of the WAP.

On FortiAP-220B units, the 802.11n mode also supports 802.11g and 802.11b clients on the 2.4GHz band and 802.11a clients on the 5GHz band.

The guest network WAP broadcasts its SSID, the employee network WAP does not.

The employees network uses WPA-Enterprise authentication through a FortiGate user group. The guest network features a captive portal. When a guest first tries to connect to the Internet, a login page requests logon credentials. Guests use numbered guest accounts authenticated by RADIUS. The captive portal for the guests includes a disclaimer page.

In this example, the FortiAP units connect to port 3 and are assigned addresses on the 192.168.8.0/24 subnet.

Configuration

To configure these wireless networks, you must:

  • Configure authentication for wireless users l Configure the SSIDs (network interfaces) l Configure the AP profile l Configure the WiFi LAN interface and a DHCP server
  • Configure firewall policies

Configuring authentication for employee wireless users

Employees have user accounts on the FortiGate unit. This example shows creation of one user account, but you can create multiple accounts and add them as members to the user group.

To configure a WiFi user – web-based manager

  1. Go to User & Device > User Definition and select Create New.
  2. Select Local User and then click Next.
  3. Enter a User Name and Password and then click Next.
  4. Click Next.
  5. Make sure that Enable is selected and then click Create.

To configure the user group for employee access – web-based manager

  1. Go to User & Device > User Groups and select Create New.
  2. Enter the following information and then select OK:
Name employee-group
Type Firewall
Members Add users.

To configure a WiFi user and the user group for employee access – CLI

config user user edit “user01” set type password set passwd “asdf12ghjk”

end

config user group edit “employee-group” set member “user01”

end

The user authentication setup will be complete when you select the employee-group in the SSID configuration.

Configuring authentication for guest wireless users

Guests are assigned temporary user accounts created on a RADIUS server. The RADIUS server stores each user’s group name in the Fortinet-Group-Name attribute. Wireless users are in the group named “wireless”.

The FortiGate unit must be configured to access the RADIUS server.

To configure the FortiGate unit to access the guest RADIUS server – web-based manager

  1. Go to User & Device > RADIUS Servers and select Create New.
  2. Enter the following information and select OK:
Name                                     guestRADIUS
Primary Server IP/Name          10.11.102.100
Primary Server Secret             grikfwpfdfg
Secondary Server IP/Name      Optional
Secondary Server Secret         Optional
Authentication Scheme          Use default, unless server requires otherwise.
Leave other settings at their default values.

To configure the FortiGate unit to access the guest RADIUS server – CLI

config user radius

edit guestRADIUS

set auth-type auto set server 10.11.102.100 set secret grikfwpfdfg

end

To configure the user group for guest access – web-based manager

  1. Go to User & Device > User Groups and select Create New.
  2. Enter the following information and then select OK:
Name guest-group
Type Firewall
Members Leave empty.
  1. Select Create new.
  2. Enter:
Remote Server Select guestRADIUS.
Groups Select wireless
  1. Select OK.

To configure the user group for guest access – CLI

config user group

edit “guest-group” set member “guestRADIUS” config match

edit 0

set server-name “guestRADIUS” set group-name “wireless”

end end

The user authentication setup will be complete when you select the guest-group user group in the SSID configuration.

Configuring the SSIDs

First, establish the SSIDs (network interfaces) for the employee and guest networks. This is independent of the number of physical access points that will be deployed. Both networks assign IP addresses using DHCP.

To configure the employee SSID – web-based manager

  1. Go to WiFi & Switch Controller > SSID and select Create New > SSID.
  2. Enter the following information and select OK:
Interface Name                       example_inc
Traffic Mode                           Tunnel to Wireless Controller
IP/Netmask                             10.10.120.1/24
Administrative Access            Ping (to assist with testing)
Enable DHCP                          Enable
  Address Range                     10.10.120.2 – 10.10.120.199
  Netmask                               255.255.255.0
  Default Gateway                   Same As Interface IP
  DNS Server                           Same as System DNS
SSID                                       example_inc
Security Mode                        WPA/WPA2-Enterprise
Authentication                        Select Local, then select employee-group.
Leave other settings at their default values.

To configure the employee SSID – CLI

config wireless-controller vap edit example_inc set ssid “example_inc” set security wpa-enterprise set auth usergroup set usergroup employee-group set schedule always

end

config system interface edit example_inc set ip 10.10.120.1 255.255.255.0

end

config system dhcp server edit 0

set default-gateway 10.10.120.1 set dns-service default set interface example_inc config ip-range

edit 1

set end-ip 10.10.120.199 set start-ip 10.10.120.2

end

set lease-time 7200 set netmask 255.255.255.0

end

To configure the example_guest SSID – web-based manager

  1. Go to WiFi & Switch Controller > SSID and select Create New.
  2. Enter the following information and select OK:
Name                                     example_guest
IP/Netmask                             10.10.115.1/24
Administrative Access            Ping (to assist with testing)
Enable DHCP                          Enable
  Address Range                     10.10.115.2 – 10.10.115.50
  Netmask                               255.255.255.0
  Default Gateway                    Same as Interface IP
  DNS Server                           Same as System DNS
SSID                                       example_guest
Security Mode                        Captive Portal
Portal Type                             Authentication
Authentication Portal              Local
User Groups                           Select guest-group
Leave other settings at their default values.

To configure the example_guest SSID – CLI

config wireless-controller vap edit example_guest

set ssid “example_guest” set security captive-portal set selected-usergroups guest-group set schedule always

end

config system interface

edit example_guest

set ip 10.10.115.1 255.255.255.0

end

config system dhcp server edit 0 set default-gateway 10.10.115.1 set dns-service default set interface “example_guest” config ip-range

edit 1 set end-ip 10.10.115.50 set start-ip 10.10.115.2

end

set lease-time 7200 set netmask 255.255.255.0

end

Configuring the FortiAP profile

The FortiAP Profile defines the radio settings for the networks. The profile provides access to both Radio 1 (2.4GHz) and Radio 2 (5GHz) for the employee virtual AP, but provides access only to Radio 1 for the guest virtual AP.

To configure the FortiAP Profile – web-based manager

  1. Go to WiFi & Switch Controller > FortiAP Profiles and select Create New.
  2. Enter the following information and select OK:
Name example_AP
Platform FAP220B
Radio 1
  Mode Access Point
  Band 802.11n
  Channel Select 1, 6, and 11.
  Tx Power 100%
  SSID Select SSIDs and select example_inc and example_guest.
Radio 2
  Mode Access Point
  Band 802.11n_5G
  Channel Select all.
  Tx Power 100%
  SSID Select SSIDs and select example_inc.

To configure the AP Profile – CLI

config wireless-controller wtp-profile edit “example_AP” config platform set type 220B

end config radio-1 set ap-bgscan enable set band 802.11n set channel “1” “6” “11” set vaps “example_inc” “example_guest”

end config radio-2 set ap-bgscan enable set band 802.11n-5G

set channel “36” “40” “44” “48” “149” “153” “157” “161” “165” set vaps “example_inc” end

Configuring firewall policies

Identity-based firewall policies are needed to enable the WLAN users to access the Internet on Port1. First you create firewall addresses for employee and guest users, then you create the firewall policies.

To create firewall addresses for employee and guest WiFi users

  1. Go to Policy & Objects > Addresses.
  2. Select Create New, enter the following information and select OK.
Address Name employee-wifi-net
Type Subnet / IP Range
Subnet / IP Range 10.10.120.0/24
Interface example_inc
  1. Select Create New, enter the following information and select OK.
Address Name guest-wifi-net
Type Subnet / IP Range
Subnet / IP Range 10.10.115.0/24
Interface example_guest

To create firewall policies for employee WiFi users – web-based manager

  1. Go to Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy and select Create New.
  2. Enter the following information and select OK:
Incoming Interface example_inc
Source Address employee-wifi-net
Outgoing Interface port1
Destination Address all
Schedule always
Service ALL
Action ACCEPT
NAT Enable NAT
  1. Optionally, select security profile for wireless users.
  2. Select OK.
  3. Repeat steps 1 through 4 but select Internal as the Destination Interface/Zone to provides access to the ExampleCo private network.

To create firewall policies for employee WiFi users – CLI

config firewall policy edit 0 set srcintf “employee_inc” set dstintf “port1” set srcaddr “employee-wifi-net” set dstaddr “all” set action accept set schedule “always” set service “ANY” set nat enable set schedule “always” set service “ANY”

next edit 0 set srcintf “employee_inc” set dstintf “internal” set srcaddr “employee-wifi-net” set dstaddr “all” set action accept set schedule “always” set service “ANY” set nat enable set schedule “always” set service “ANY”

end

To create a firewall policy for guest WiFi users – web-based manager

  1. Go to Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy and select Create New.
  2. Enter the following information and select OK:
Incoming Interface example_guest
Source Address guest-wifi-net
Outgoing Interface port1
Destination Address all
Schedule always
Service ALL
Action ACCEPT
NAT Enable NAT
  1. Optionally, select UTM and set up UTM features for wireless users.
  2. Select OK.

To create a firewall policy for guest WiFi users – CLI

config firewall policy edit 0 set srcintf “example_guest” set dstintf “port1” set srcaddr “guest-wifi-net” set dstaddr “all” set action accept set schedule “always” set service “ANY” set nat enable

end

Connecting the FortiAP units

You need to connect each FortiAP-220A unit to the FortiGate unit, wait for it to be recognized, and then assign it to the AP Profile. But first, you must configure the interface to which the FortiAP units connect and the DHCP server that assigns their IP addresses.

In this example, the FortiAP units connect to port 3 and are controlled through IP addresses on the 192.168.8.0/24 network.

To configure the interface for the AP unit – web-based manager

  1. Go to Network > Interfaces and edit the port3 interface.

2. Set the Addressing mode to Dedicated to Extension Device and set the IP/Netmask to

192.168.8.1/255.255.255.0.

This step automatically configures a DHCP server for the AP units.

  1. Select OK.

To configure the interface for the AP unit – CLI

config system interface edit port3

set mode static

set ip 192.168.8.1 255.255.255.0

end

To configure the DHCP server for AP units – CLI

config system dhcp server edit 0 set interface port3 config ip-range

edit 1 set end-ip 192.168.8.9 set start-ip 192.168.8.2

end

set netmask 255.255.255.0 set vci-match enable set vci-string “FortiAP”

end

To connect a FortiAP-220A unit – web-based manager

  1. Go to WiFi & Switch Controller > Managed FortiAPs.
  2. Connect the FortiAP unit to port 3.
  3. Periodically select Refresh while waiting for the FortiAP unit to be listed.

Recognition of the FortiAP unit can take up to two minutes.

If there is persistent difficulty recognizing FortiAP units, try disabling VCI-Match in the DHCP server settings.

  1. When the FortiAP unit is listed, select the entry to edit it. The Edit Managed Access Point window opens.
  2. In State, select
  3. In the AP Profile, select [Change] and then select the example_AP
  4. Select OK.
  5. Repeat Steps 2 through 8 for each FortiAP unit.

To connect a FortiAP-220A unit – CLI

  1. Connect the FortiAP unit to port 3.
  2. Enter:

config wireless-controller wtp

  1. Wait 30 seconds, then enter get.

Retry the get command every 15 seconds or so until the unit is listed, like this:

== [ FAP22A3U10600118 ] wtp-id: FAP22A3U10600118

  1. Edit the discovered FortiAP unit like this:

edit FAP22A3U10600118 set admin enable set wtp-profile example_AP

end

  1. Repeat Steps 2 through 4 for each FortiAP unit.

 


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