Differentiated Services

Differentiated Services

Differentiated Services describes a set of end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) capabilities. End-to-end QoS is the ability of a network to deliver service required by specific network traffic from one end of the network to another. By configuring differentiated services, you configure your network to deliver particular levels of service for different packets based on the QoS specified by each packet.

Differentiated Services (also called DiffServ) is defined by RFC 2474 and 2475 as enhancements to IP networking to enable scalable service discrimination in the IP network without the need for per-flow state and signaling at every hop. Routers that can understand differentiated services sort IP traffic into classes by inspecting the DS field in IPv4 header or the Traffic Class field in the IPv6 header.

You can use the FortiGate Differentiated Services feature to change the DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point) value for all packets accepted by a policy. The network can use these DSCP values to classify, mark, shape, and police traffic, and to perform intelligent queuing. DSCP features are applied to traffic by configuring the routers on your network to apply different service levels to packets depending on the DSCP value of the packet.

If the differentiated services feature is not enabled, the FortiGate unit treats traffic as if the DSCP value is set to the default (00), and will not change IP packets’ DSCP field. DSCP values are also not applied to traffic if the traffic originates from a FortiGate unit itself.

The FortiGate unit applies the DSCP value and IPsec encryption to the differentiated services (formerly ToS) field in the first word of the IP header. The typical first word of an IP header, with the default DSCP value, is 4500:

  • 4 for IPv4
  • 5 for a length of five words
  • 00 for the default DSCP value

You can change the packet’s DSCP field for traffic initiating a session (forward) or for reply traffic (reverse) and enable each direction separately and configure it in the security policy.

Changes to DSCP values in a security policy effect new sessions. If traffic must use the new DSCP values immediately, clear all existing sessions.

DSCP is enabled using the CLI command:

config firewall policy edit <policy_number>

set diffserv-forward enable

set diffservcode-forward <binary_integer>

set diffserv-reverse enable

set diffservcode-rev <binary_integer>

end

For more information on the different DCSP commands, see the examples below and the CLI Reference. If you only set diffserv-forward and diffserv-reverse without setting the corresponding diffvercode values, the FortiGate unit will reset the bits to zero.

For a list of DSCP values and their ToS equivalents see Differentiated Services on page 2491. DSCP values can also be defined within a shared shaper as a single value, and per-IP shaper for forward and reverse directions.

 

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DSCP examples

 

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For all the following DSCP examples, the FortiGate and client PC configuration is the following diagram and used firewall-based DSCP configurations.

Example

In this example, an ICMP ping is executed between User 1 and FortiGate B, through a FortiGate unit. DSCP is disabled on FortiGate B, and FortiGate A contains the following configuration:

config firewall policy edit 2

set srcintf port6 set dstintf port3 set src addr all set dstaddr all set action accept

set schedule always set service ANY

set diffserv-forward enable

set diffservcode-forward 101110

end

 

As a result, FortiGate A changes the DSCP field for outgoing traffic, but not to its reply traffic. The binary DSCP values used map to the following hexadecimal

 

ToS field values, which are observable by a sniffer (also known as a packet tracer):

  • DSCP 000000 is TOS field 0x00
  • DSCP 101110 is TOS field 0xb8, the recommended DSCP value for expedited forwarding (EF)

If you performed an ICMP ping between User 1 and User 2, the following output illustrates the IP headers for the request and the reply by sniffers on each of FortiGate unit’s network interfaces. The right-most two digits of each IP header are the ToS field, which contains the DSCP value.

 

 

 

User 1

             

 

User 2

  4500 4500 45b8 45b8 45b8 45b8  
  4500 4500 4500 4500 4500 4500  

Example

In this example, an ICMP ping is executed between User 1 and FortiGate B, through FortiGate A. DSCP is disabled on FortiGate B, and FortiGate A contains the following configuration:

config firewall policy edit 2

set srcintf port6 set dstintf port3 set src addr all set dstaddr all set action accept

set schedule always set service ANY”

set diffserv-forward enable set diffserv-rev enable

set diffservcode-forward 101110 set diffservcode-rev 101111

end

 

As a result, FortiGate A changes the DSCP field for both outgoing traffic and its reply traffic. The binary DSCP values in map to the following hexadecimal ToS field values, which are observable by a sniffer (also known as a packet tracer):

  • DSCP 000000 is TOS field 0x00
  • DSCP 101110 is TOS field 0xb8, the recommended DSCP value for expedited forwarding (EF)
  • DSCP 101111 is TOS field 0xbc

If you performed an ICMP ping between User 1 and User 2, the output below illustrates the IP headers observed for the request and the reply by sniffers on each of FortiGate A’s and FortiGate B’s network interfaces. The right- most two digits of each IP header are the ToS field, which contains the DSCP value.

 

 

User 1

             

User 2

  4500 4500 45b8 45b8 45b8 45b8  
  45bc 45bc 4500 4500 4500 4500  

 

Example

In this example, an ICMP ping is executed between User 1 and FortiGate B, through FortiGate A. DSCP is enabled for both traffic directions on FortiGate A, and enabled only for reply traffic on FortiGate B. FortiGate A contains the following configuration:

config firewall policy edit 2

set srcintf port6 set dstintf port3 set src addr all set dstaddr all set action accept

set schedule always set service ANY

set diffserv-forward enable

set diffserv-rev enable

set diffservcode-forward 101110 set diffservcode-rev 101111

end

 

FortiGate B contains the following configuration:

config firewall policy edit 2

set srcintf wan2

set dstintf internal set src addr all

set dstaddr all set action accept set schedule always set service ANY

set diffserv-rev enable

set diffservcode-rev 101101 end

 

As a result, FortiGate A changes the DSCP field for both outgoing traffic and its reply traffic, and FortiGate B changes the DSCP field only for reply traffic. The binary DSCP values in this configuration map to the following hexadecimal ToS field values:

  • DSCP 000000 is TOS field 0x00
  • DSCP 101101 is TOS field 0xb4
  • DSCP 101110 is TOS field 0xb8, the recommended DSCP value for expedited forwarding (EF)
  • DSCP 101111 is TOS field 0xbc

If you performed an ICMP ping between User 1 and User 2, the output below illustrates the IP headers observed for the request and the reply by sniffers on each of FortiGate A’s and FortiGate B’s network interfaces. The right- most two digits of each IP header are the ToS field, which contains the DSCP value.

 

 

User 1

             

User 2

  4500 4500 45b8 45b8 45b8 45b8  
  45bc 45bc 45b4 45b4 4500 4500  

 

Example

In this example, HTTPS and DNS traffic is sent from User 1 to FortiGate B, through FortiGate A. DSCP is enabled for both traffic directions on FortiGate A, and enabled only for reply traffic on FortiGate B. FortiGate A contains the following configuration:

config firewall policy edit 2

set srcintf port6 set dstintf port3 set src addr all set dstaddr all set action accept

set schedule always set service ANY

set diffserv-forward enable set diffserv-rev enable

set diffservcode-forward 101110 set diffservcode-rev 101111

end

 

FortiGate B contains the following configuration:

config firewall policy edit 2

set srcintf wan2

set dstintf internal set src addr all

set dstaddr all set action accept set schedule always set service ANY

set diffserv-rev enable

set diffservcode-rev 101101 end

As a result, FortiGate A changes the DSCP field for both outgoing traffic and its reply traffic, but FortiGate B changes the DSCP field only for reply traffic which passes through its internal interface. Since the example traffic does not pass through the internal interface, FortiGate B does not mark the packets. The binary DSCP values in this configuration map to the following hexadecimal ToS field values:

  • DSCP 000000 is TOS field 0x00
  • DSCP 101101 is TOS field 0xb4, which is configured on FortiGate B but not observed by the sniffer because the example traffic originates from the FortiGate unit itself, and therefore does not match that security policy.
  • DSCP 101110 is TOS field 0xb8, the recommended DSCP value for expedited forwarding (EF)
  • DSCP 101111 is TOS field 0xbc

If you sent HTTPS or DNS traffic from User 1 to FortiGate B, the following would illustrate the IP headers observed for the request and the reply by sniffers on each of FortiGate A’s and FortiGate B’s network interfaces. The right-most two digits of each IP header are the ToS field, which contains the DSCP value.

User 1                                                                                                                                    User 2

4500           4500                  45b8                                                       45b8

45bc

45bc

4500

4500

 

ToS and DSCP traffic mapping

There are two types of traffic mapping: Type of Service (ToS) or DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point). Only one method can be used at a time, with ToS set as the default method. You can set the type used and attributes in the CLI.

 

To set ToS or DSCP traffic mapping

config system global

set traffic-priority {tos | dscp}

set traffic-priority-level {low | medium | high }

end

 

Mapping of DSCP and ToS hexadecimal values for QoS

 

Service Class          DSCP Bits               DSCP Value            ToS Value               ToS Hexidecimal
Network Control       111000                       56-63                         224                             0xE0
Internetwork Con-

trol                             110000                       48-55                         192                             0xC0

Critical – Voice

Data (RTP)

 

 

 

Flash Override

Video Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flash Voice Con- trol

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Immediate Deterministic (SNA)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Priority Con- trolled Load

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Routine – Best

Effort

 

101110                       46                               184                             0xB8

 

101000                       40                               160                             0xA0

 

100010                       34                               136                             0x88

 

100100                       36                               144                             0x90

 

100110                       38                               152                             0x98

 

100000                       32                               128                             0x80

 

011010                       26                               104                             0x68

 

011100                       28                               112                             0x70

 

011110                       30                               120                             0x78

 

011000                       24                               96                               0x60

 

010010                       18                               72                               0x48

 

010100                       20                               80                               0x50

 

010110                       22                               88                               0x58

 

010000                       16                               64                               0x40

 

001010                       10                               40                               0x28

 

001100                       12                               48                               0x30

 

001110                       14                               56                               0x38

 

001000                       8                                 32                               0x20

 

000000                       0                                 0                                 0x00

Routine – Penalty

Box                            000010                       2                                 8                                 0x08


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