FortiGate Users and user groups

Users and user groups

FortiGate authentication controls system access by user group. By assigning individual users to the appropriate user groups you can control each user’s access to network resources. The members of user groups are user accounts, of which there are several types. Local users and peer users are defined on the FortiGate unit. User accounts can also be defined on remote authentication servers.

This section describes how to configure local users and peer users and then how to configure user groups.

This section contains the following topics:

l Users l User groups

Users

A user is a user account consisting of username, password, and in some cases other information, configured on the FortiGate unit or on an external authentication server. Users can access resources that require authentication only if they are members of an allowed user group. There are several different types of user accounts with slightly different methods of authentication:

User type Authentication
Local user The username and password must match a user account stored on the FortiGate unit. Authentication by FortiGate security policy.
Remote user The username must match a user account stored on the FortiGate unit and the username and password must match a user account stored on the remote authentication server. FortiOS supports LDAP, RADIUS, and TACACS+ servers.
Authentication server user A FortiGate user group can include user accounts or groups that exist on a remote authentication server.
FSSO user With Fortinet Single Sign On (FSSO), users on a Microsoft Windows or Novell network can use their network authentication to access resources through the FortiGate unit. Access is controlled through FSSO user groups which contain Windows or Novell user groups as their members.
PKI or Peer user A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) or peer user is a digital certificate holder who authenticates using a client certificate. No password is required, unless two-factor authentication is enabled.
IM Users IM users are not authenticated. The FortiGate unit can allow or block each IM user name from accessing the IM protocols. A global policy for each IM protocol governs access to these protocols by unknown users.
User type Authentication
Guest Users Guest user accounts are temporary. The account expires after a selected period of time.

This section includes:

l Local and remote users l PKI or peer users l Two-factor authentication l FortiToken l Monitoring users

Local and remote users

Local and remote users are defined on the FortiGate unit in User & Device > User Definition.

Create New Creates a new user account. When you select Create New, you are automatically redirected to the User Creation Wizard.
Edit User Modifies a user’s account settings. When you select Edit, you are automatically redirected to the Edit User page.
Delete Removes a user from the list. Removing the user name removes the authentication configured for the user.

The Delete icon is not available if the user belongs to a user group.

To remove multiple local user accounts from within the list, on the User page, in each of the rows of user accounts you want removed, select the check box and then select Delete.

To remove all local user accounts from the list, on the User page, select the check box in the check box column and then select Delete.

User Name The user name. For a remote user, this username must be identical to the username on the authentication server.
Type Local indicates a local user authenticated on the FortiGate unit. For remote users, the type of authentication server is shown: LDAP, RADIUS, or TACACS+.
Two-factor

Authentication

Indicates whether two-factor authentication is configured for the user.
Ref. Displays the number of times this object is referenced by other objects. Select the number to open the Object Usage window and view the list of referring objects. The list is grouped into expandable categories, such as Firewall Policy. Numbers of objects are shown in parentheses.

To view more information about the referring object, use the icons:

View the list page for these objects – available for object categories. Goes to the page where the object is listed. For example, if the category is User Groups, opens User Groups list.

Edit this object – opens the object for editing. l View the details for this object – displays current settings for the object.

To create a local or remote user account – web-based manager:

  1. Go to User & Device > User Definition and select Create New.
  2. On the Choose User Type page select:
Local User Select to authenticate this user using a password stored on the FortiGate unit.
Remote RADIUS User

Remote TACACS+ User

Remote LDAP User

To authenticate this user using a password stored on an authentication server, select the type of server and then select the server from the list. You can select only a server that has already been added to the FortiGate unit configuration.
  1. Select Next and provide user authentication information. For a local user, enter the User Name and Password.

For a remote user, enter the User Name and the server name.

  1. Select Next and enter Contact Information.

If email or SMS is used for two-factor authentication, provide the email address or SMS cell number at which the user will receive token password codes. If a custom SMS service is used, it must already be configured. See FortiToken on page 56.

  1. Select Next, then on the Provide Extra Info page enter
Two-factor Authentication Select to enable two-factor authentication. Then select the Token (FortiToken or FortiToken Mobile) for this user account. See Associating FortiTokens with accounts on page 60.
User Group Select the user groups to which this user belongs.
  1. Select Create.

To create a local user – CLI example:

Locally authenticated user

config user local edit user1 set type password set passwd ljt_pj2gpepfdw end

To create a remote user – CLI example:

config user local edit user2 set type ldap set ldap_server ourLDAPsrv

end

For a RADIUS or TACACS+ user, set type to radius or tacacs+, respectively.

To create a user with FortiToken Mobile two-factor authentication – CLI example:

config user local edit user5 set type password set passwd ljt_pj2gpepfdw set two_factor fortitoken set fortitoken 182937197

end

Remote users are configured for FortiToken two-factor authentication similarly.

To create a user with SMS two-factor authentication using FortiGuard messaging service – CLI example:

config user local edit user6 set type password set passwd 3ww_pjt68dw set two_factor sms set sms-server fortiguard set sms-phone 1365984521

end

Removing users

Best practices dictate that when a user account is no longer in use, it should be deleted. Removing local and remote users from FortiOS involve the same steps.

If the user account is referenced by any configuration objects, those references must be removed before the user can be deleted. See Removing references to users on page 53.

To remove a user from the FortiOS configuration – web-based manager:

  1. Go to User & Device > User Definition.
  2. Select the check box of the user that you want to remove.
  3. Select Delete.
  4. Select OK.

To remove a user from the FortiOS configuration – CLI example:

config user local delete user4444 end

Removing references to users

You cannot remove a user that belongs to a user group. Remove the user from the user group first, and then delete the user.

To remove references to a user – web-based manager

  1. Go to User & Device > User Definition.
  2. If the number in the far right column for the selected user contains any number other than zero, select it.
  3. A more detailed list of object references to this user is displayed. Use its information to find and remove these references to allow you to delete this user.

PKI or peer users

A PKI, or peer user, is a digital certificate holder. A PKI user account on the FortiGate unit contains the information required to determine which CA certificate to use to validate the user’s certificate. Peer users can be included in firewall user groups or peer certificate groups used in IPsec VPNs. For more on certificates, see Certificates overview on page 111.

To define a peer user you need:

  • a peer username
  • the text from the subject field of the user’s certificate, or the name of the CA certificate used to validate the user’s certificate

Creating a peer user

The peer user can be configured only in the CLI.

To create a peer user for PKI authentication – CLI example:

config user peer edit peer1 set subject peer1@mail.example.com

set ca CA_Cert_1

end

There are other configuration settings that can be added or modified for PKI authentication. For example, you can configure the use of an LDAP server to check access rights for client certificates. For information about the detailed PKI configuration settings, see the FortiGate CLI Reference.

Two-factor authentication

The standard logon requires a username and password. This is one factor authentication—your password is one piece of information you need to know to gain access to the system.

Two factor authentication adds the requirement for another piece of information for your logon. Generally the two factors are something you know (password) and something you have (certificate, token, etc.). This makes it harder for a hacker to steal your logon information. For example if you have a FortiToken device, the hacker would need to both use it and know your password to gain entry to your account.

Two-factor authentication is available on both user and admin accounts. But before you enable two-factor authentication on an administrator account, you need to ensure you have a second administrator account configured to guarantee administrator access to the FortiGate unit if you are unable to authenticate on the main admin account for some reason.

FortiToken extension to comply with PCI 3.2

With multi-factor-authentication enabled as mandatory (see syntax below), all authentication will collect both username/password and OTP as a second factor before presenting an authentication result. The system will log for each factor.

If a user is not configured with two-factor authentication, any OTP or an empty OTP would make the second factor authentication pass.

FortiOS processes the user and password first and then always collects the second factor (if configured) without any indication of the first factor failing or succeeding. FortiOS accepts the second factor even if the first failed (unknown to the user) and returns a login attempt pass or fail, with no indication of which factor failed.

Syntax

config system global set multi-factor-authentication {optional | mandatory}

end

The methods of two-factor authentication include:

  • Certificate l Email
  • SMS
  • FortiToken

Certificate

You can increase security by requiring both certificate and password authentication for PKI users. Certificates are installed on the user’s computer. Requiring a password also protects against unauthorized use of that computer.

Optionally peer users can enter the code from their FortiToken instead of the certificate.

To create a peer user with two-factor authentication – CLI example

config user peer edit peer1 set subject E=peer1@mail.example.com

set ca CA_Cert_1 set two-factor enable set passwd fdktguefheygfe

end

For more information on certificates, see Certificates overview on page 111.

Email

Two-factor email authentication sends a randomly generated six digit numeric code to the specified email address. Enter that code when prompted at logon. This token code is valid for 60 seconds. If you enter this code after that time, it will not be accepted.

A benefit is that you do not require mobile service to authenticate. However, a potential issue is if your email server does not deliver the email before the 60 second life of the token expires.

The code will be generated and emailed at the time of logon, so you must have email access at that time to be able to receive the code.

To configure an email provider – web-based manager:

  1. Go to System > Advanced and enable Use Custom Email Server under Email Service.
  2. Enter SMTP Server and Default Reply To
  3. If applicable, enable Authentication and enter the SMTP User and Password to use.
  4. Select a Security Mode, options are: None, SMTPS or STARTTLS.
  5. Enter the Port number, the default is 25.
  6. Select Apply.

To configure an email provider – CLI:

config system email-server set server <server_domain-name> set reply-to <Recipient_email_address>

end

To enable email two-factor authentication – web-based manager:

  1. To modify an administrator account, go to System > Administrators. To modify a user account go to User & Device > User Definition.
  2. Edit the user account.
  3. Enable and enter the user’s Email Address.
  4. Select Enable Two-factor Authentication.
  5. Select Email based two-factor authentication.
  6. Select OK.

If Email based two-factor authentication option doesn’t appear after selecting Enable Two-factor Authentication, you need to enable it via the CLI as follows.

To enable email two-factor authentication – CLI:

config user local edit <user_name> set email-to <user_email> set two-factor email end

SMS

SMS two-factor authentication sends the token code in an SMS text message to the mobile device indicated when this user attempts to logon. This token code is valid for 60 seconds. If you enter this code after that time, it will not be accepted. Enter this code when prompted at logon to be authenticated.

SMS two-factor authentication has the benefit that you do not require email service before logging on. A potential issue is if the mobile service provider does not send the SMS text message before the 60 second life of the token expires.

FortiGuard Messaging Service include four SMS Messages at no cost. If you need more, you should acquire a license through support.fortinet.com or via customer service.

If you do not use the FortiGuard Messaging Service, you need to configure an SMS service.

To configure an SMS service – CLI:

config system sms-server edit <provider_name> set mail-server <server_domain-name>

next

end

To configure SMS two-factor authentication – web-based manager:

  1. To modify an:

l administrator account, go to System > Administrators, or l user account go to User & Device > User Definition.

  1. Edit the user account.
  2. Select SMS and enter the Country Dial Code and Phone Number.
  3. Select Enable Two-factor Authentication. and select the correct Token.
  4. Select OK.

If you have problems receiving the token codes via SMS messaging, contact your mobile provider to ensure you are using the correct phone number format to receive text messages and that your current mobile plan allows text messages.

FortiToken

FortiToken is a disconnected one-time password (OTP) generator. It is a small physical device with a button that when pressed displays a six digit authentication code. This code is entered with a user’s username and password as two-factor authentication. The code displayed changes every 60 seconds, and when not in use the LCD screen is blanked to extend the battery life.

There is also a mobile phone application, FortiToken Mobile, that performs much the same function.

FortiTokens have a small hole in one end. This is intended for a lanyard to be inserted so the device can be worn around the neck, or easily stored with other electronic devices. Do not put the FortiToken on a key ring as the metal ring and other metal objects can damage it. The FortiToken is an electronic device like a cell phone and must be treated with similar care.

Any time information about the FortiToken is transmitted, it is encrypted. When the FortiGate unit receives the code that matches the serial number for a particular FortiToken, it is delivered and stored encrypted. This is in keeping with the Fortinet’s commitment to keeping your network highly secured.

FortiTokens can be added to user accounts that are local, IPsec VPN, SSL VPN, and even Administrators. See Associating FortiTokens with accounts on page 60.

A FortiToken can be associated with only one account on one FortiGate unit.

If a user loses their FortiToken, it can be locked out using the FortiGate so it will not be used to falsely access the network. Later if found, that FortiToken can be unlocked on the FortiGate to allow access once again. See FortiToken maintenance on page 62.

There are three tasks to complete before FortiTokens can be used to authenticate accounts:

  1. Adding FortiTokens to the FortiGate
  2. Activating a FortiToken on the FortiGate
  3. Associating FortiTokens with accounts

In addition, this section includes the following:

l FortiToken maintenance l FortiToken Mobile Push

The FortiToken authentication process

The steps during FortiToken two-factor authentication are as follows.

  1. User attempts to access a network resource.
  2. FortiGate unit matches the traffic to an authentication security policy, and FortiGate unit prompts the user for username and password.
  3. User enters their username and password.
  4. FortiGate unit verifies their information, and if valid prompts the user for the FortiToken code.
  5. User gets the current code from their FortiToken device.
  6. User enters current code at the prompt.
  7. FortiGate unit verifies the FortiToken code, and if valid allows access to the network resources such as the Internet.

The following steps are needed only if the time on the FortiToken has drifted and needs to be re-synchronized with the time on the FortiGate unit.

  1. If time on FortiToken has drifted, FortiGate unit will prompt user to enter a second code to confirm.
  2. User gets the next code from their FortiToken device
  3. User enters the second code at the prompt.
  4. FortiGate unit uses both codes to update its clock to match the FortiToken and then proceeds as in step “Users and user groups” on page 49.

The FortiToken authentication process is illustrated below:

When configured the FortiGate unit accepts the username and password, authenticates them either locally or remotely, and prompts the user for the FortiToken code. The FortiGate then authenticates the FortiToken code. When FortiToken authentication is enabled, the prompt field for entering the FortiToken code is automatically added to the authentication screens.

Even when an Administrator is logging in through a serial or Telnet connection and their account is linked to a FortiToken, that Administrator will be prompted for the token’s code at each login.

Adding FortiTokens to the FortiGate

Before one or more FortiTokens can be used to authenticate logons, they must be added to the FortiGate. The import feature is used to enter many FortiToken serial numbers at one time. The serial number file must be a text file with one FortiToken serial number per line.

Both FortiToken Mobile and physical FortiTokens store their encryption seeds on the cloud, therefore you will only be able to register them to a single FortiGate or FortiAuthenticator.

Because FortiToken-200CD seed files are stored on the CD, these tokens can be registered on multiple FortiGates and/or FortiAuthenticators, but not simultaneously.

To manually add a FortiToken to the FortiGate – web-based manager:

  1. Go to User & Device > FortiTokens.
  2. Select Create New.
  3. In Type, select Hard Token or Mobile Token.
  4. Enter one or more FortiToken serial numbers (hard token) or activation codes (mobile token).
  5. Select OK.

To import multiple FortiTokens to the FortiGate – web-based manager:

  1. Go to User & Device > FortiTokens.
  2. Select Create New.
  3. In Type, select Hard Token.
  4. Select Import.
  5. Select Serial Number File or Seed File, depending on which file you have.
  6. Browse to the local file location on your local computer.
  7. Select OK.

The file is imported.

  1. Select OK.

To import FortiTokens to the FortiGate from external sources – CLI:

FortiToken seed files (both physical and mobile versions) can be imported from either FTP or TFTP servers, or a USB drive, allowing seed files to be imported from an external source more easily:

execute fortitoken import ftp <file name> <ip>[:ftp port] <Enter> <user> <password> execute fortitoken import tftp <file name> <ip> execute fortitoken import usb <file name>

To add two FortiTokens to the FortiGate – CLI:

config user fortitoken edit <serial_number> next

edit <serial_number2> next

end

Activating a FortiToken on the FortiGate

Once one or more FortiTokens have been added to the FortiGate unit, they must be activated before being available to be associated with accounts. The process of activation involves the FortiGate querying FortiGuard servers about the validity of each FortiToken. The serial number and information is encrypted before it is sent for added security.

To activate a FortiToken on the FortiGate unit – web-based manager:

  1. Go to User & Device > FortiTokens.
  2. Select one or more FortiTokens with a status of Available.
  3. Right-click the FortiToken entry and select Activate.
  4. Select Refresh.

The status of selected FortiTokens will change to Activated.

The selected FortiTokens are now available for use with user and admin accounts.

To activate a FortiToken on the FortiGate unit – CLI:

config user fortitoken edit <token_serial_num> set status activate

next

end

Associating FortiTokens with accounts

The final step before using the FortiTokens to authenticate logons is associating a FortiToken with an account. The accounts can be local user or administrator accounts.

To add a FortiToken to a local user account – web-based manager:

  1. Ensure that your FortiToken serial number has been added to the FortiGate successfully, and its status is Available.
  2. Go to User & Device > User Definition, and edit the user account.
  3. Enter the user’s Email Address.
  4. Enable Two-factor Authentication.
  5. Select the user’s FortiToken serial number from the Token
  6. Select OK.

For mobile token, click on Send Activation Code to be sent to the email address configured previously. The user will use this code to activate his mobile token. An Email Service has to be set under System > Advanced in order to send the activation code.

To add a FortiToken to a local user account – CLI:

config user local edit <username> set type password set passwd “myPassword” set two-factor fortitoken set fortitoken <serial_number> set email-to “username@example.com”

set status enable

next

end

To add a FortiToken to an administrator account – web-based manager:

  1. Ensure that your FortiToken serial number has been added to the FortiGate successfully, and its status is Available.
  2. Go to System > Administrators, and edit the admin account.

This account is assumed to be configured except for two-factor authentication.

  1. Enter admin’s Email Address.
  2. Enable Two-factor Authentication.
  3. Select the user’s FortiToken serial number from the Token
  4. Select OK.

For mobile token, click on Send Activation Code to be sent to the email address configured previously. The admin will use this code to activate his mobile token. An Email Service has to be set under System > Advanced in order to send the activation code.

To add a FortiToken to an administrator account – CLI:

config system admin edit <username> set password “myPassword” set two-factor fortitoken set fortitoken <serial_number> set email-to “username@example.com”

next

end

The fortitoken keyword will not be visible until fortitoken is selected for the two-factor option.

FortiToken maintenance

Once FortiTokens are entered into the FortiGate unit, there are only two tasks to maintain them — changing the status,

To change the status of a FortiToken between activated and locked – CLI:

config user fortitoken edit <token_serial_num> set status lock

next

end

Any user attempting to login using this FortiToken will not be able to authenticate.

To list the drift on all FortiTokens configured on this FortiGate unit – CLI:

# diag fortitoken info

FORTITOKEN DRIFT STATUS

FTK2000BHV1KRZCC 0 token already activated, and seed won’t be returned

FTK2001C5YCRRVEE 0 token already activated, and seed won’t be returned

FTKMOB4B94972FBA 0 provisioned

FTKMOB4BA4BE9B84 0 new

Total activated token: 0

Total global activated token: 0

Token server status: reachable

This command lists the serial number and drift for each FortiToken configured on this FortiGate unit. This command is useful to check if it is necessary to synchronize the FortiGate and any particular FortiTokens.

FortiToken Mobile Push

A command under config system ftm-push allows you to configure the FortiToken Mobile Push services server IP address and port number. The Push service is provided by Apple (APNS) and Google (GCM) for iPhone and Android smartphones respectively. This will help to avoid tokens becoming locked after an already enabled two-factor authentication user has been disabled.

CLI syntax

config system ftm-push set server-ip <ip-address> set server-port [1-65535] Default is 4433. end

Note that the server-ip is the public IP address of the FortiGate interface that the FTM will call back to; it is the IP address used by the FortiGate for incoming FTM calls.

If an SSL VPN user authenticates with their token, then logs out and attempts to reauthenticate again within a minute, a new message will display showing “Please wait x seconds to login again.” This replaces a previous error/permission denied message.

The “x” value will depend on the calculation of how much time is left in the current time step.

CLI syntax

config system interface edit <name> set allowaccess ftm

next end

FortiGate supports when the FortiAuthenticator initiates FTM Push notifications, for when users are attempting to authenticate through a VPN and/or RADIUS (with FortiAuthenticator as the RADIUS server).

Monitoring users

To monitor user activity in the web-based manager, go to Monitor > Firewall User Monitor. The list of users who are logged on is displayed with some information about them such as their user group, security policy ID, how long they have been logged on, their IP address, traffic volume, and their authentication method as one of FSSO, NTLM, or firewall (FW-auth).

From this screen you can de-authenticate all users who are logged on. The de-authenticate button is at the top left of this screen.

To see information about banned users go to Monitor > Quarantine Monitor. Displayed information about users who have been banned includes what application the triggered the ban (Application Protocol), the reason for the ban (Cause or rule), Created, and when the ban expires.

Filtering the list of users

When there are many users logged on, it can be difficult to locate a specific user or multiple users to analyze. Applying filters to the list allows you to organize the user list to meet your needs, or only display some the users that meet your current requirements.

Select settings bottom at the top right of the screen to adjust columns that are displayed for users, including what order they are displayed in. This can be very helpful in locating information you are looking for.

Each column heading has a grey filter icon. Click on the filter icon to configure a filter for the data displayed in that column. Each column has similar options including a field to enter the filtering information, a check box to select the negative of the text in the field, and the options to add more fields, apply the filter, clear all filters, or cancel without saving. To enter multiple terms in the field, separate each of them with a comma. To filter entries that contain a specific prefix, use an * (asterisk).

For example, to create a filter to display only users with an IP address of 10.11.101.x who authenticated using one of security policies five through eight, and who belong to the user group Accounting.

  1. Go to Monitor > Quarantine Monitor.
  2. Enter 11.101.* and select Apply.
  3. Select the filter icon beside Policy ID.
  4. Enter 5-8 and select Apply.
  5. Select the filter icon beside User Group.
  6. Enter Accounting and select Apply.

 

Login credentials for guest users shown in clear text on GUI and voucher

In FortiOS 5.6.4, login credentials for guest users is displayed/printed in clear text on the GUI and in the voucher. It is also sent in clear text by SMS and email.

User groups

A user group is a list of user identities. An identity can be:

l a local user account (username/password stored on the FortiGate unit l a remote user account (password stored on a RADIUS, LDAP, or TACACS+ server) l a PKI user account with digital client authentication certificate stored on the FortiGate unit l a RADIUS, LDAP, or TACACS+ server, optionally specifying particular user groups on that server l a user group defined on an FSSO server.

Security policies and some types of VPN configurations allow access to specified user groups only. This restricted access enforces Role Based Access Control (RBAC) to your organization’s network and its resources. Users must be in a group and that group must be part of the security policy.

In most cases, the FortiGate unit authenticates users by requesting their username and password. The FortiGate unit checks local user accounts first. If a match is not found, the FortiGate unit checks the RADIUS, LDAP, or TACACS+ servers that belong to the user group. Authentication succeeds when a matching username and password are found. If the user belongs to multiple groups on a server, those groups will be matched as well.

There are four types of FortiGate user groups: Firewall, FSSO, Guest, and RADIUS single sign-on (RSSO) user groups.


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