Application layer firewalls
Application layer filtering is yet another approach and as the name implies it works primarily on the Application Layer of the OSI Model.
Application Layer Firewalls actually, for lack of a better term, understand certain applications and protocols. Examples would be FTP, DNS and HTTP. This form of filtration is able to check to see if the packets are actually behaving incorrectly or if the packets have been incorrectly formatted for the protocol that is indicated. This
What is a firewall?
process also allows for the use of deep packet inspection and the sharing of functionality with Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS).
Application-layer firewalls work on the application level of the TCP/IP stack (i.e., all browser traffic, or all telnet or ftp traffic), and may intercept all packets traveling to or from an application. They block other packets (usually dropping them without acknowledgment to the sender). Application firewalls work much like a packet filter but application filters apply filtering rules (allow/block) on a per process basis instead of filtering connections on a per port basis.
On inspecting all packets for improper content, firewalls can restrict or prevent outright the spread of networked computer worms and trojans. The additional inspection criteria can add extra latency to the forwarding of packets to their destination.
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