WCCP Concepts

WCCP Concepts

The Web Cache Communication Protocol (WCCP) can be used to provide web caching with load balancing and fault tolerance. In a WCCP configuration, a WCCP server receives HTTP requests from user’s web browsers and redirects the requests to one or more WCCP clients. The clients either return cached content or request new content from the destination web servers before caching it and returning it to the server which in turn returns the content to the original requestor. If a WCCP configuration includes multiple WCCP clients, the WCCP server load balances traffic among the clients and can detect when a client fails and failover sessions to still operating clients. WCCP is described by the Web Cache Communication Protocol Internet draft.

The sessions that are cached by WCCP depend on the configuration of the WCCP clients. If the client is a FortiGate unit, you can configure the port numbers and protocol number of the sessions to be cached. For example, to cache HTTPS traffic on port 443 the WCCP client port must be set to 443 and protocol must be set to

  1. If the WCCP client should also cache HTTPS traffic on port 993 the client ports option should include both port 443 and 993.

On a FortiGate unit, WCCP sessions are accepted by a security policy before being cached. If the security policy that accepts sessions that do not match the port and protocol settings in the WCCP clients the traffic is dropped.

WCCP is configured per-VDOM. A single VDOM can operate as a WCCP server or client (not both at the same time). FortiGate units are compatible with third-party WCCP clients and servers. If a FortiGate unit is operating as an Internet firewall for a private network, you can configure it to cache and serve some or all of the web traffic on the private network using WCCP by adding one or more WCCP clients, configuring WCCP server settings on the FortiGate unit and adding WCCP security policies that accept HTTP session from the private network.

FortiGate units support WCCPv1 and WCCPv2. A FortiGate unit in NAT/Route or transparent mode can operate as a WCCP server. To operate as a WCCP client a FortiGate unit must be in NAT/Route mode. FortiGate units communicate between WCCP servers and clients over UDP port 2048. This communication can be encapsulated in a GRE tunnel or just use layer 2 forwarding.

WCCP configuration overview


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