IPsec VPN concepts

IPsec VPN concepts

Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology enables remote users to connect to private computer networks to gain access to their resources in a secure way. For example, an employee traveling or working from home can use a VPN to securely access the office network through the Internet.

Instead of remotely logging on to a private network using an unencrypted and unsecure Internet connection, the use of a VPN ensures that unauthorized parties cannot access the office network and cannot intercept any of the information that is exchanged between the employee and the office. It is also common to use a VPN to connect the private networks of two or more offices.

Fortinet offers VPN capabilities in the FortiGate Unified Threat Management (UTM) appliance and in the

FortiClient Endpoint Security suite of applications. A FortiGate unit can be installed on a private network, and FortiClient software can be installed on the user’s computer. It is also possible to use a FortiGate unit to connect to the private network instead of using FortiClient software.

This chapter discusses VPN terms and concepts including:

VPN tunnels

VPN gateways

Clients, servers, and peers

Encryption

Authentication

Phase 1 and Phase 2 settings

IKE and IPsec packet processing

VPN tunnels

The data path between a user’s computer and a private network through a VPN is referred to as a tunnel. Like a physical tunnel, the data path is accessible only at both ends. In the telecommuting scenario, the tunnel runs between the FortiClient application on the user’s PC, or a FortiGate unit or other network device and the FortiGate unit on the office private network.

Encapsulation makes this possible. IPsec packets pass from one end of the tunnel to the other and contain data packets that are exchanged between the local user and the remote private network. Encryption of the data packets ensures that any third-party who intercepts the IPsec packets can not access the data.

VPN tunnels Encoded data going through a VPN tunnel

You can create a VPN tunnel between:

  • A PC equipped with the FortiClient application and a FortiGate unit
  • Two FortiGate units
  • Third-party VPN software and a FortiGate unit

For more information on third-party VPN software, refer to the Fortinet Knowledge Base for more information.

Tunnel templates

Several tunnel templates are available in the IPsec VPN Wizard that cover a variety of different types of IPsec VPN. A list of these templates appear on the first page of the Wizard, located at VPN > IPsec Wizard. The tunnel template list follows.

IPsec VPN Wizard options

VPN Type Remote Device Type NAT Options Description
Site to Site FortiGate l   No NAT between sites

l   This site is behind NAT

l   The remote site is behind NAT

Static tunnel between this FortiGate and a remote FortiGate.
Cisco l   No NAT between sites

l   This site is behind NAT

l   The remote site is behind NAT

Static tunnel between this FortiGate and a remote Cisco firewall.

VPN gateways

VPN Type Remote Device Type NAT Options Description
Remote Access FortiClient VPN for OS X, Windows, and Android N/A On-demand tunnel for users using the FortiClient software.
iOS Native N/A On-demand tunnel for iPhone/iPad users using the native iOS IPsec client.
Android Native N/A On-demand tunnel for Android users using the native L2TP/IPsec client.
Windows Native N/A On-demand tunnel for Android users using the native L2TP/IPsec client.
Cisco AnyConnect N/A On-demand tunnel for users using the Cisco IPsec client.
Custom N/A N/A No Template.

VPN tunnel list

Once you create an IPsec VPN tunnel, it appears in the VPN tunnel list at VPN > IPsec Tunnels. By default, the tunnel list indicates the name of the tunnel, its interface binding, the tunnel template used, and the tunnel status. If you right-click on the table header row, you can include columns for comments, IKE version, mode (aggressive vs main), phase 2 proposals, and reference number. The tunnel list page also includes the option to create a new tunnel, as well as the options to edit or delete a highlighted tunnel.

FortiView VPN tunnel map

A geospatial map can be found under FortiView > VPN Map to help visualize IPsec (and SSL) VPN connections to a FortiGate using Google Maps. This feature adds a geographical-IP API service for resolving spatial locations from IP addresses.

VPN gateways

A gateway is a router that connects the local network to other networks. The default gateway setting in your computer’s TCP/IP properties specifies the gateway for your local network.

VPN gateways

A VPN gateway functions as one end of a VPN tunnel. It receives incoming IPsec packets, decrypts the encapsulated data packets and passes the data packets to the local network. Also, it encrypts data packets destined for the other end of the VPN tunnel, encapsulates them, and sends the IPsec packets to the other VPN gateway. The VPN gateway is a FortiGate unit because the private network behind it is protected, ensuring the security of the unencrypted VPN data. The gateway can also be FortiClient software running on a PC since the unencrypted data is secure on the PC.

The IP address of a VPN gateway is usually the IP address of the network interface that connects to the Internet. Optionally, you can define a secondary IP address for the interface and use that address as the local VPN gateway address. The benefit of doing this is that your existing setup is not affected by the VPN settings.

The following diagram shows a VPN connection between two private networks with FortiGate units acting as the VPN gateways. This configuration is commonly referred to as Gateway-to-Gateway IPsec VPN.

VPN tunnel between two private networks

Although the IPsec traffic may actually pass through many Internet routers, you can visualize the VPN tunnel as a simple secure connection between the two FortiGate units.

Users on the two private networks do not need to be aware of the VPN tunnel. The applications on their computers generate packets with the appropriate source and destination addresses, as they normally do. The FortiGate units manage all the details of encrypting, encapsulating, and sending the packets to the remote VPN gateway.

The data is encapsulated in IPsec packets only in the VPN tunnel between the two VPN gateways. Between the user’s computer and the gateway, the data is on the secure private network and it is in regular IP packets.

For example User1 on the Site  A network, at IP address 10.10.1.7, sends packets with destination IP address 192.168.10.8, the address of User2 on the Site B network. The Site A FortiGate unit is configured to send packets with destinations on the 192.168.10.0 network through the VPN, encrypted and encapsulated. Similarly, the Site Clients, servers, and peers

B FortiGate unit is configured to send packets with destinations on the 10.10.1.0 network through the VPN tunnel to the Site A VPN gateway.

In the site-to-site, or gateway-to-gateway VPN shown below, the FortiGate units have static (fixed) IP addresses and either unit can initiate communication.

You can also create a VPN tunnel between an individual PC running FortiClient and a FortiGate unit, as shown below. This is commonly referred to as Client-to-Gateway IPsec VPN.

VPN tunnel between a FortiClient PC and a FortiGate unit

On the PC, the FortiClient application acts as the local VPN gateway. Packets destined for the office network are encrypted, encapsulated into IPsec packets, and sent through the VPN tunnel to the FortiGate unit. Packets for other destinations are routed to the Internet as usual. IPsec packets arriving through the tunnel are decrypted to recover the original IP packets.

Clients, servers, and peers

A FortiGate unit in a VPN can have one of the following roles:

  • Server — responds to a request to establish a VPN tunnel.
  • Client — contacts a remote VPN gateway and requests a VPN tunnel. l Peer — brings up a VPN tunnel or responds to a request to do so.

The site-to-site VPN shown above is a peer-to-peer relationship. Either FortiGate unit VPN gateway can establish the tunnel and initiate communications. The FortiClient-to-FortiGate VPN shown below is a client-server relationship. The FortiGate unit establishes a tunnel when the FortiClient PC requests one.

Encryption

A FortiGate unit cannot be a VPN server if it has a dynamically-assigned IP address. VPN clients need to be configured with a static IP address for the server. A FortiGate unit acts as a server only when the remote VPN gateway has a dynamic IP address or is a client-only device or application, such as FortiClient.

As a VPN server, a FortiGate unit can also offer automatic configuration for FortiClient PCs. The user needs to know only the IP address of the FortiGate VPN server and a valid user name/password. FortiClient downloads the VPN configuration settings from the FortiGate VPN server. For information about configuring a FortiGate unit as a VPN server, see the FortiClient Administration Guide.

Encryption

Encryption mathematically transforms data to appear as meaningless random numbers. The original data is called plaintext and the encrypted data is called ciphertext. The opposite process, called decryption, performs the inverse operation to recover the original plaintext from the ciphertext.

The process by which the plaintext is transformed to ciphertext and back again is called an algorithm. All algorithms use a small piece of information, a key, in the arithmetic process of converted plaintext to ciphertext, or vice-versa. IPsec uses symmetrical algorithms, in which the same key is used to both encrypt and decrypt the data. The security of an encryption algorithm is determined by the length of the key that it uses. FortiGate IPsec VPNs offer the following encryption algorithms, in descending order of security:

Encryption Description
AES-GCM Galois/Counter Mode (GCM), a block cipher mode of operation providing both confidentiality and data origin authentication.
AES256 A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 256-bit key.
AES192 A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 192-bit key.
AES128 A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 128-bit key.
3DES Triple-DES, in which plain text is DES-encrypted three times by three keys.
DES Digital Encryption Standard, a 64-bit block algorithm that uses a 56-bit key

The default encryption algorithms provided on FortiGate units make recovery of encrypted data almost impossible without the proper encryption keys.

There is a human factor in the security of encryption. The key must be kept secret, known only to the sender and receiver of the messages. Also, the key must not be something that unauthorized parties might easily guess, such as the sender’s name, birthday or simple sequence such as 123456.

Diffie-Hellman groups

FortiOS IPsec VPN supports the following Diffie-Hellman (DH) asymmetric key algorithms for public key cryptography.

Encryption

DH Group Description
1 More Modular Exponential (MODP) DH Group with a 768-bit modulus.
2 MODP with a 1024-bit modulus.
5 MODP with a 1536-bit modulus.
14 MODP with a 2048-bit modulus.
15 MODP with a 3027-bit modulus.
16 MODP with a 4096-bit modulus.
17 MODP with a 6144-bit modulus.
18 MODP with a 8192-bit modulus.
19 256-bit random elliptic curve group.
20 384-bit random elliptic curve group.
21 521-bit random elliptic curve group.
27 Brainpool 224-bit elliptic curve group.
28 Brainpool 256-bit elliptic curve group.
29 Brainpool 384-bit elliptic curve group.
30 Brainpool 512-bit elliptic curve group.

* When using aggressive mode, DH groups cannot be negotiated.

By default, DH group 14 is selected, to provide sufficient protection for stronger cipher suites that include AES and SHA2. If you select multiple DH groups, the order they appear in the configuration is the order in which they are negotiates.

If both VPN peers (or a VPN server and its client) have static IP addresses and use aggressive mode, select a single DH group. The setting on the FortiGate unit must be identical to the setting on the remote peer or dialup client.

When the remote VPN peer or client has a dynamic IP address and uses aggressive mode, select up to three DH groups on the FortiGate unit and one DH group on the remote peer or dialup client. The setting on the remote peer or dialup client must be identical to one of the selections on the FortiGate unit.

If the VPN peer or client employs main mode, you can select multiple DH groups. At least one of the settings on the remote peer or dialup client must be identical to the selections on the FortiGate unit.

Authentication

IPsec overheads

The FortiGate sets an IPsec tunnel Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) of 1436 for 3DES/SHA1 and an MTU of 1412 for AES128/SHA1, as seen with diag vpn tunnel list. This indicates that the FortiGate allocates 64 bytes of overhead for 3DES/SHA1 and 88 bytes for AES128/SHA1, which is the difference if you subtract this MTU from a typical ethernet MTU of 1500 bytes.

During the encryption process, AES/DES operates using a specific size of data which is block size. If data is smaller than that, it will be padded for the operation. MD5/SHA-1 HMAC also operates using a specific block size.

The following table describes the potential maximum overhead for each IPsec encryption:

IPsec Transform Set IPsec Overhead (Max. bytes)
ESP-AES (256, 192, or 128),ESP-SHA-HMAC, or MD5 73
ESP-AES (256, 192, or 128) 61
ESP-3DES, ESP-DES 45
ESP-(DES or 3DES), ESP-SHA-HMAC, or MD5 57
ESP-Null, ESP-SHA-HMAC, or MD5 45
AH-SHA-HMAC or MD5 44

Authentication

To protect data via encryption, a VPN must ensure that only authorized users can access the private network. You must use either a preshared key on both VPN gateways or RSA X.509 security certificates. The examples in this guide use only preshared key authentication. Refer to the Fortinet Knowledge Base for articles on RSA X.509 security certificates.

Preshared keys

A preshared key contains at least six random alphanumeric characters. Users of the VPN must obtain the preshared key from the person who manages the VPN server and add the preshared key to their VPN client configuration.

Although it looks like a password, the preshared key, also known as a shared secret, is never sent by either gateway. The preshared key is used in the calculations at each end that generate the encryption keys. As soon as the VPN peers attempt to exchange encrypted data, preshared keys that do not match will cause the process to fail.

Additional authentication

To increase security, you can require additional means of authentication from users, such as:

Phase 1 and Phase 2 settings

  • An identifier, called a peer ID or a local ID.
  • Extended authentication (XAUTH) which imposes an additional user name/password requirement.

A Local ID is an alphanumeric value assigned in the Phase 1 configuration. The Local ID of a peer is called a Peer

ID.

In FortiOS 5.2, new authentication methods have been implemented for IKE: ECDSA-256, ECDSA-384, and ECDSA-521. However, AES-XCBC is not supported.

Phase 1 and Phase 2 settings

A VPN tunnel is established in two phases: Phase 1 and Phase 2. Several parameters determine how this is done. Except for IP addresses, the settings simply need to match at both VPN gateways. There are defaults that are appropriate for most cases.

FortiClient distinguishes between Phase 1 and Phase 2 only in the VPN Advanced settings and uses different terms. Phase 1 is called the IKE Policy. Phase 2 is called the IPsec Policy.

Phase 1

In Phase 1, the two VPN gateways exchange information about the encryption algorithms that they support and then establish a temporary secure connection to exchange authentication information.

When you configure your FortiGate unit or FortiClient application, you must specify the following settings for Phase 1:

Remote gateway The remote VPN gateway’s address.

FortiGate units also have the option of operating only as a server by selecting the “Dialup User” option.

Preshared key This must be the same at both ends. It is used to encrypt Phase 1 authentication information.
Local interface The network interface that connects to the other VPN gateway. This applies on a FortiGate unit only.

All other Phase 1 settings have default values. These settings mainly configure the types of encryption to be used. The default settings on FortiGate units and in the FortiClient application are compatible. The examples in this guide use these defaults.

For more detailed information about Phase 1 settings, see Phase 1 parameters on page 52.

Phase 2

Similar to the Phase 1 process, the two VPN gateways exchange information about the encryption algorithms that they support for Phase 2. You may choose different encryption for Phase 1 and Phase 2. If both gateways have at least one encryption algorithm in common, a VPN tunnel can be established. Keep in mind that more algorithms each phase does not share with the other gateway, the longer negotiations will take. In extreme cases this may cause timeouts during negotiations.

 

To configure default Phase 2 settings on a FortiGate unit, you need only select the name of the corresponding Phase 1 configuration. In FortiClient, no action is required to enable default Phase 2 settings.

For more detailed information about Phase 2 settings, see Phase 2 parameters on page 72.

Security Association

The establishment of a Security Association (SA) is the successful outcome of Phase 1 negotiations. Each peer maintains a database of information about VPN connections. The information in each SA can include cryptographic algorithms and keys, keylife, and the current packet sequence number. This information is kept synchronized as the VPN operates. Each SA has a Security Parameter Index (SPI) that is provided to the remote peer at the time the SA is established. Subsequent IPsec packets from the peer always reference the relevant SPI. It is possible for peers to have multiple VPNs active simultaneously, and correspondingly multiple SPIs.

The IPsec SA connect message generated is used to install dynamic selectors. These selectors can be installed via the auto-negotiate mechanism. When phase 2 has auto-negotiate enabled, and phase 1 has mesh selectortype set to subnet, a new dynamic selector will be installed for each combination of source and destination subnets. Each dynamic selector will inherit the auto-negotiate option from the template selector and begin SA negotiation. Phase 2 selector sources from dial-up clients will all establish SAs without traffic being initiated from the client subnets to the hub.

Remote IP address change detection

SAs are stored in a hash table when keyed off the IPsec SA SPI value. This enables the FortiGate, for each inbound ESP packet received, to immediately look up the SA and compare the stored IP address against the one in the incoming packet. If the incoming and stored IP addresses differ, an IP address change can be made in the kernel SA, and an update event can be triggered for IKE.

IKE and IPsec packet processing

Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is the protocol used to set up SAs in IPsec negotiation. As described in Phase 1 parameters on page 52, you can optionally choose IKEv2 over IKEv1 if you configure a route-based IPsec VPN. IKEv2 simplifies the negotiation process, in that it provides no choice of Aggressive or Main mode in Phase 1. IKEv2 also uses less bandwidth.

The following sections identify how IKE versions 1 and 2 operate and differentiate.

IKEv1

Phase 1

A peer, identified in the IPsec policy configuration, begins the IKE negotiation process. This IKE Security Association (SA) agreement is known as Phase 1. The Phase 1 parameters identify the remote peer or clients and supports authentication through pre-shared key (PSK) or digital certificate. You can increase access security further using peer identifiers, certificate distinguished names, group names, or the FortiGate extended authentication (XAuth) option for authentication purposes. Basically, Phase 1 authenticates a remote peer and sets up a secure communication channel for establishing Phase 2, which negotiates the IPsec SA.

IKE and IPsec packet processing

IKE Phase 1 can occur in either Main mode or Aggressive mode. For more information, see  Phase 1 parameters on page 52.

IKE Phase 1 is successful only when the following are true:

  • Each peer negotiates a matching IKE SA policy.
  • Each peer is authenticated and their identities protected.
  • The Diffie-Hellman exchange is authenticated (the pre-shared secret keys match).

For more information on Phase 1, see Phase 1 parameters on page 52.

Phase 2

Phase 2 parameters define the algorithms that the FortiGate unit can use to encrypt and transfer data for the remainder of the session in an IPsec SA. The basic Phase 2 settings associate IPsec Phase 2 parameters with a Phase 1 configuration.

In Phase 2, the VPN peer or client and the FortiGate unit exchange keys again to establish a more secure communication channel. The Phase 2 Proposal parameters select the encryption and authentication algorithms needed to generate keys for protecting the implementation details of the SA. The keys are generated automatically using a Diffie-Hellman algorithm.

In Phase 2, Quick mode selectors determine which IP addresses can perform IKE negotiations to establish a tunnel. By only allowing authorized IP addresses access to the VPN tunnel, the network is more secure. For more information, see Phase 2 parameters on page 72.

IKE Phase 2 is successful only when the following are true:

  • The IPsec SA is established and protected by the IKE SA.
  • The IPsec SA is configured to renegotiate after set durations (see Phase 2 parameters on page 72 and Phase 2 parameters on page 72).
  • Optional: Replay Detection is enabled. Replay attacks occur when an unauthorized party intercepts a series of IPsec packets and replays them back into the tunnel. See Phase 2 parameters on page 72.
  • Optional: Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) is enabled. PFS improves security by forcing a new Diffie-Hellman exchange whenever keylife expires. See Phase 2 parameters on page 72.

For more information on Phase 2, see Phase 2 parameters on page 72.

With Phase 2 established, the IPsec tunnel is fully negotiated and traffic between the peers is allowed until the SA terminates (for any number of reasons; time-out, interruption, disconnection, etc).

The entire IKEv1 process is demonstrated in the following diagram:

IKEv2

Phase 1

Unlike Phase 1 of IKEv1, IKEv2 does not provide options for Aggressive or Main mode. Furthermore, Phase 1 of IKEv2 begins immediately with an IKE SA initiation, consisting of only two packets (containing all the information typically contained in four packets for IKEv1), securing the channel such that all following transactions are encrypted (see Phase 1 parameters on page 52).

The encrypted transactions contain the IKE authentication, since remote peers have yet to be authenticated. This stage of IKE authentication in IKEv2 can loosely be called Phase 1.5.

Phase 1.5

As part of this phase, IKE authentication must occur. IKE authentication consists of the following:

  • The authentication payloads and Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) identifier.
  • The authentication method (RSA, PSK, ECDSA, or EAP). l The IPsec SA parameters.

Due to the number of authentication methods potentially used, and SAs established, the overall IKEv2 negotiation can range from 4 packets (no EAP exchange at all) to many more.

At this point, both peers have a security association complete and ready to encrypt traffic.

IKE and IPsec packet processing

Phase 2

In IKEv1, Phase 2 uses Quick mode to negotiate an IPsec SA between peers. In IKEv2, since the IPsec SA is already established, Phase 2 is essentially only used to negotiate “child” SAs, or to re-key an IPsec SA. That said, there are only two packets for each exchange of this type, similar to the exchange at the outset of Phase 1.5.

The entire IKEv2 process is demonstrated in the following diagram:

Support for IKEv2 session resumption

If a gateway loses connectivity to the network, clients can attempt to re-establish the lost session by presenting the ticket to the gateway (as described in RFC 5723). As a result, sessions can be resumed much faster, as DH exchange that is necessary to establish a brand new connection is skipped. This feature implements “ticket-byvalue”, whereby all information necessary to restore the state of a particular IKE SA is stored in the ticket and sent to the client.

IKEv2 asymmetric authentication

Asymmetric authentication allows both sides of an authentication exchange to use different authentication methods, for example the initiator may be using a shared key, while the responder may have a public signature key and certificate.

The command authmethod-remote is avilable under config vpn ipsec phase1-interface.

For more detailed information on authentication of the IKE SA, see RFC 5996 Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2).

IKEv2 Digital Signature Authentication support

FortiOS supports the use of Digital Signature authentication, which changes the format of the Authentication Data payload in order to support different signature methods.

Instead of just  containing a raw signature value calculated as defined in the original IKE RFCs,  the Auth Data now includes an ASN.1 formatted object that provides  details on how the signature was calculated, such as the signature type, hash algorithm, and signature padding method.

For more detailed information on IKEv2 Digital Signature authentication, see RFC 7427 Signature Authentication in the Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2).

Unique IKE identifiers

When enabled, the following phase1 CLI command (enforce-unique-id) requires all IPsec VPN clients to use a unique identifer when connecting.

CLI syntax

config vpn ipsec phase1 edit <name> set enforce-unique-id {keep-new | keep-old | disable} Default is disable. next

end

 

Use keep-new to replace the old connnection if an ID collision is detected on the gateway. Use keep-old to reject the new connection if an ID collision is detected.

IKEv2 ancillary RADIUS group authentication

This feature provides for the IDi information to be extracted from the IKEv2 AUTH exchange and sent to a RADIUS server, along with a fixed password (configurable via CLI only), to perform an additional group authentication step prior to tunnel establishment. The RADIUS server may return framed-IP-address, framed-ipnetmask, and dns-server attributes, which are then applied to the tunnel.

It should be noted, unlike Xauth or EAP, this feature does not perform individual user authentication, but rather treats all users on the gateway as a single group, and authenticates that group with RADIUS using a fixed password. This feature also works with RADIUS accounting, including the phase1 acct-verify option.

Syntax

config vpn ipsec phase1-interface edit <name> set mode-cfg enable set type dynamic set ike-version 2

set group-authentication {enable | disable} set group-authentication-secret <password>

next end

 


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