Methods of authentication
FortiGate unit authentication is divided into three basic types: password authentication for people, certificate authentication for hosts or endpoints, and two-factor authentication for additional security beyond just passwords. An exception to this is that FortiGate units in an HA cluster and FortiManager units use password authentication.
Password authentication verifies individual user identities, but access to network resources is based on membership in user groups. For example, a security policy can be configured to permit access only to the members of one or more user groups. Any user who attempts to access the network through that policy is then authenticated through a request for their username and password.
Methods of authentication include:
l Local password authentication l Server-based password authentication l Certificate-based authentication l Two-factor authentication
Local password authentication
The simplest authentication is based on user accounts stored locally on the FortiGate unit. For each account, a username and password is stored. The account also has a disable option so that you can suspend the account without deleting it.
Local user accounts work well for a single-FortiGate installation. If your network has multiple FortiGate units that will use the same accounts, the use of an external authentication server can simplify account configuration and maintenance.
You can create local user accounts in the web-based manager under User & Device > User Definition. This page is also used to create accounts where an external authentication server stores and verifies the password.
Server-based password authentication
Using external authentication servers is desirable when multiple FortiGate units need to authenticate the same users, or where the FortiGate unit is added to a network that already contains an authentication server. FortiOS supports the use of LDAP, RADIUS, TACACS+, AD or POP3 servers for authentication.
When you use an external authentication server to authenticate users, the FortiGate unit sends the user’s entered credentials to the external server. The password is encrypted. The server’s response indicates whether the supplied credentials are valid or not.
You must configure the FortiGate unit to access the external authentication servers that you want to use. The configuration includes the parameters that authenticate the FortiGate unit to the authentication server.
You can use external authentication servers in two ways:
- Create user accounts on the FortiGate unit, but instead of storing each user’s password, specify the server used to authenticate that user. As with accounts that store the password locally, you add these users to appropriate user groups.
- Add the authentication server to user groups. Any user who has an account on the server can be authenticated and have the access privileges of the FortiGate user group. Optionally, when an LDAP server is a FortiGate user group member, you can limit access to users who belong to specific groups defined on the LDAP server.
An RSA X.509 server certificate is a small file issued by a Certificate Authority (CA) that is installed on a computer or FortiGate unit to authenticate itself to other devices on the network. When one party on a network presents the certificate as authentication, the other party can validate that the certificate was issued by the CA. The identification is therefore as trustworthy as the Certificate Authority (CA) that issued the certificate.
To protect against compromised or misused certificates, CAs can revoke any certificate by adding it to a Certificate Revocation List (CRL). Certificate status can also be checked online using Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP).
RSA X.509 certificates are based on public-key cryptography, in which there are two keys: the private key and the public key. Data encrypted with the private key can be decrypted only with the public key and vice versa. As the names suggest, the private key is never revealed to anyone and the public key can be freely distributed. Encryption with the recipient’s public key creates a message that only the intended recipient can read. Encryption with the sender’s private key creates a message whose authenticity is proven because it can be decrypted only with the sender’s public key.
Server certificates contain a signature string encrypted with the CA’s private key. The CA’s public key is contained in a CA root certificate. If the signature string can be decrypted with the CA’s public key, the certificate is genuine. Certificate authorities
A certificate authority can be:
l an organization, such as VeriSign Inc., that provides certificate services l a software application, such as Microsoft Certificate Services or OpenSSH
For a company web portal or customer-facing SSL VPN, a third-party certificate service has some advantages. The CA certificates are already included in popular web browsers and customers trust the third-party. On the other hand, third-party services have a cost.
For administrators and for employee VPN users, the local CA based on a software application provides the required security at low cost. You can generate and distribute certificates as needed. If an employee leaves the organization, you can simply revoke their certificate.
Certificates for users
FortiGate unit administrators and SSL VPN users can install certificates in their web browsers to authenticate themselves. If the FortiGate unit uses a CA-issued certificate to authenticate itself to the clients, the browser will also need the appropriate CA certificate.
FortiGate IPsec VPN users can install server and CA certificates according to the instructions for their IPsec VPN client software. The FortiClient Endpoint Security application, for example, can import and store the certificates required by VPN connections.
FortiGate units are also compatible with some Public Key Infrastructure systems. For an example of this type of system, see RSA ACE (SecurID) servers on page 48.
A user can be required to provide both something they know (their username and password combination) and something they have (certificate or a random token code). Certificates are installed on the user’s computer.
Two-factor authentication is available for PKI users. For more information, see Certificate on page 58.
Another type of two-factor authentication is to use a randomly generated token (multi-digit number) along with the username and password combination. One method is a FortiToken — a one time passcode (OTP) generator that generates a unique code every 60 seconds. Others use email or SMS text messaging to deliver the random token code to the user or administrator.
When one of these methods is configured, the user enters this code at login after the username and password have been verified. The FortiGate unit verifies the token code after as well as the password and username. For more information, see Two-factor authentication on page 57
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