VLAN switching and routing
VLAN switching takes place on the OSI model layer-2, just like other network switching. VLAN routing takes place on the OSI model layer-3. The difference between them is that during VLAN switching, VLAN packets are simply forwarded to their destination. This is different from VLAN routing where devices can open the VLAN packets and change their VLAN ID tags to route the packets to a new destination.
VLAN layer-2 switching
Ethernet switches are layer-2 devices, and generally are 802.1Q compliant. Layer 2 refers to the second layer of the seven layer Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) basic networking model; the Data Link layer. FortiGate units act as layer-2 switches or bridges when they are in transparent mode. The units simply tag and forward the VLAN traffic or receive and remove the tags from the packets. A layer-2 device does not inspect incoming packets or change their contents; it only adds or removes tags and routes the packet.
A VLAN can have any number of physical interfaces assigned to it. Multiple VLANs can be assigned to the same physical interface. Typically two or more physical interfaces are assigned to a VLAN, one for incoming and one for outgoing traffic. Multiple VLANs can be configured on one FortiGate unit, including trunk links.
Layer–2 VLAN example
To better understand VLAN operation, this example shows what happens to a data frame on a network that uses VLANs.
The network topology consists of two 8-port switches that are configured to support VLANs on a network. Both switches are connected through port 8 using an 802.1Q trunk link. Subnet 1 is connected to switch A, and subnet 2 is connected to switch B. The ports on the switches are configured as follows.
How ports and VLANs are used on Switch A and Switch B
1 – 4
5 – 7
A & B
4 – 5
In this example, switch A is connected to the Branch Office and switch B to the Main Office.
1. A computer on port 1 of switch A sends a data frame over the network.
2. Switch A tags the data frame with a VLAN 100 ID tag upon arrival because port 1 is part of VLAN 100.
3. Switch A forwards the tagged data frame to the other VLAN 100 ports — ports 2 through 4. Switch A also forwards the data frame to the 802.1Q trunk link (port 8) so other parts of the network that may contain VLAN 100 groups will receive VLAN 100 traffic.
This data frame is not forwarded to the other ports on switch A because they are not part of VLAN 100. This increases security and decreases network traffic.
4. Switch B receives the data frame over the trunk link (port 8).
5. Because there are VLAN 100 ports on switch B (ports 4 and 5), the data frame is forwarded to those ports. As with switch A, the data frame is not delivered to VLAN 200.
If there were no VLAN 100 ports on switch B, the switch would not forward the data frame and it would stop there.
6. The switch removes the VLAN 100 ID tag before it forwards the data frame to an end destination.
The sending and receiving computers are not aware of any VLAN tagging on the data frames that are being transmitted. When any computer receives that data frame, it appears as a normal data frame.
VLAN layer-3 routing
Routers are layer-3 devices. Layer 3 refers to the third layer of the OSI networking model, the Network layer. FortiGate units in NAT mode act as layer-3 devices. As with layer 2, FortiGate units acting as layer-3 devices are 802.1Q-compliant.
The main difference between layer-2 and layer-3 devices is how they process VLAN tags. Layer-2 switches just add, read and remove the tags. They do not alter the tags or do any other high-level actions. Layer-3 routers not only add, read and remove tags but also analyze the data frame and its contents. This analysis allows layer-3 routers to change the VLAN tag if it is appropriate and send the data frame out on a different VLAN.
In a layer-3 environment, the 802.1Q-compliant router receives the data frame and assigns a VLAN ID. The router then forwards the data frame to other members of the same VLAN broadcast domain. The broadcast domain can include local ports, layer-2 devices and layer-3 devices such as routers and firewalls. When a layer-3 device receives the data frame, the device removes the VLAN tag and examines its contents to decide what to do with the data frame. The layer-3 device considers:
- Source and destination addresses
- Port number
The data frame may be forwarded to another VLAN, sent to a regular non-VLAN-tagged network or just forwarded to the same VLAN as a layer-2 switch would do. Or, the data frame may be discarded if the proper security policy has been configured to do so.
Layer–3 VLAN example
In this example, switch A is connected to the Branch Office subnet, the same as subnet 1 in the layer-2 example. In the Main Office subnet, VLAN 300 is on port 5 of switch B. The FortiGate unit is connected to switch B on port 1 and the trunk link connects the FortiGate unit’s port 3 to switch A. The other ports on switch B are unassigned.
This example explains how traffic can change VLANs originating on VLAN 100 and arriving at a destination on VLAN 300. Layer-2 switches alone cannot accomplish this, but a layer-3 router can.
1. The VLAN 100 computer at the Branch Office sends the data frame to switch A, where the VLAN 100 tag is added.
2. Switch A forwards the tagged data frame to the FortiGate unit over the 802.1Q trunk link, and to the VLAN 100 interfaces on Switch A.
3. The FortiGate unit removes the VLAN 100 tag, and inspects the content of the data frame. The FortiGate unit uses the content to select the correct security policy and routing options.
4. The FortiGate unit’s security policy allows the data frame to go to VLAN 300 in this example. The data frame will be sent to all VLAN 300 interfaces, but in the example there is only port 1 on the FortiGate unit. Before the data frame leaves, the FortiGate unit adds the VLAN ID 300 tag to the data frame.
5. Switch B receives the data frame, and removes the VLAN ID 300 tag, because this is the last hop, and forwards the data frame to the computer on port 5.
In this example, a data frame arrived at the FortiGate unit tagged as VLAN 100. After checking its content, the FortiGate unit retagged the data frame for VLAN 300. It is this change from VLAN 100 to VLAN 300 that requires a layer-3 routing device, in this case the FortiGate unit. Layer-2 switches cannot perform this change.
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