About active-active failover
HA failover in a cluster running in active-active mode is similar to active-passive failover described above. Active- active subordinate units are constantly waiting to negotiate to become primary units and, if session failover is enabled, continuously receive connection state information from the primary unit. If the primary unit fails, or one of the primary unit interfaces fails, the cluster units use the same mechanisms to detect the failure and to negotiate to select a new primary unit. If session failover is enabled, the new primary unit also maintains communication sessions through the cluster using the shared connection state table.
Active-active HA load balances sessions among all cluster units. For session failover, the cluster must maintain all of these sessions. To load balance sessions, the functioning cluster uses a load balancing schedule to distribute sessions to all cluster units. The shared connection state table tracks the communication sessions being processed by all cluster units (not just the primary unit). After a failover, the new primary unit uses the load balancing schedule to re-distribute all of the communication sessions recorded in the shared connection state table among all of the remaining cluster units. The connections continue to be processed by the cluster, but possibly by a different cluster unit, and are handled according to their last known state.
The FGCP provides transparent device failover. Device failover is a basic requirement of any highly available system. Device failover means that if a device fails, a replacement device automatically takes the place of the failed device and continues operating in the same manner as the failed device.
In the case of FortiOS HA, the device is the primary unit. If the primary unit fails, device failover ensures that one of the subordinate units in the cluster automatically takes the place of the primary unit and can continue processing network traffic in the same way as the failed primary unit.
Device failover does not maintain communication sessions. After a device failover, com- munication sessions have to be restarted. To maintain communication sessions, you must enable session failover. See Session failover (session pick-up) on page 1539.
FortiGate HA device failover is supported by the HA heartbeat, virtual MAC addresses, configuration synchronization, route synchronization and IPsec VPN SA synchronization.
The HA heartbeat makes sure that the subordinate units detect a primary unit failure. If the primary unit fails to respond on time to HA heartbeat packets the subordinate units assume that the primary unit has failed and negotiate to select a new primary unit.
The new primary unit takes the place of the failed primary unit and continues functioning in the same way as the failed primary unit. For the new primary unit to continue functioning like the failed primary unit, the new primary unit must be able to reconnect to network devices and the new primary unit must have the same configuration as the failed primary unit.
FortiGate HA uses virtual MAC addresses to reconnect the new primary unit to network devices. The FGCP causes the new primary unit interfaces to acquire the same virtual MAC addresses as the failed primary unit. As a result, the new primary unit has the same network identity as the failed primary unit.
The new primary unit interfaces have different physical connections than the failed primary unit. Both the failed and the new primary unit interfaces are connected to the same switches, but the new primary unit interfaces are connected to different ports on these switches. To make sure that the switches send packets to the new primary unit, the new primary unit interfaces send gratuitous ARP packets to the connected switches. These gratuitous ARP packets notify the switches that the primary unit MAC and IP addresses are on different switch ports and cause the switches to send packets to the ports connected to the new primary unit. In this way, the new primary unit continues to receive packets that would otherwise have been sent to the failed primary unit.
Configuration synchronization means that the new primary unit always has the same configuration as the failed primary unit. As a result the new primary unit operates in exactly the same way as the failed primary unit. If configuration synchronization were not available the new primary unit may not process network traffic in the same way as the failed primary unit.
Kernel routing table synchronization synchronizes the primary unit kernel routing table to all subordinate units so that after a failover the new primary unit does not have to form a completely new routing table. IPsec VPN SA synchronization synchronizes IPsec VPN security associations (SAs) and other IPsec session data so that after a failover the new primary unit can resume IPsec tunnels without having to establish new SAs.
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