Clusters and logging

Clusters and logging

This section describes the log messages that provide information about how HA is functioning, how to view and manage logs for each unit in a cluster, and provides some example log messages that are recorded during specific cluster events.

You configure logging for a cluster in the same way as you configuring logging for a standalone FortiGate unit. Log configuration changes made to the cluster are synchronized to all cluster units.

All cluster units record log messages separately to the individual cluster unit’s log disk, to the cluster unit’s system memory, or both. You can view and manage log messages for each cluster unit from the cluster web-based manager Log Access page.

When remote logging is configured, all cluster units send log messages to remote FortiAnalyzer units or other remote servers as configured. HA uses routing and inter-VDOM links to route subordinate unit log traffic through the primary unit to the network.

When you configure a FortiAnalyzer unit to receive log messages from a FortiGate cluster, you should add a cluster to the FortiAnalyzer unit configuration so that the FortiAnalyzer unit can receive log messages from all cluster units.

Viewing and managing log messages for individual cluster units

This section describes how to view and manage log messages for an individual cluster unit.

To view HA cluster log messages

1. Log into the cluster web-based manager.
2. Go to Log&Report > Log Config > Log Settings > GUI Preferences and select to display logs from
Memory, Disk or FortiAnalyzer.
For each log display, the HA Cluster list displays the serial number of the cluster unit for which log messages are displayed. The serial numbers are displayed in order in the list.

3. Set HA Cluster to the serial number of one of the cluster units to display log messages for that unit.

About HA event log messages

HA event log messages always include the host name and serial number of the cluster unit that recorded the message. HA event log messages also include the HA state of the unit and also indicate when a cluster unit switches (or moves) from one HA state to another. Cluster units can operate in the HA states listed below:

HA states

Hello A FortiGate unit configured for HA operation has started up and is looking for other
FortiGate units with which to form a cluster.

Work In an active-passive cluster a cluster unit is operating as the primary unit. In an active- active cluster unit is operating as the primary unit or a subordinate unit.

Standby In an active-passive cluster the cluster unit is operating as a subordinate unit.

HA log Event log messages also indicate the virtual cluster that the cluster unit is operating in as well as the member number of the unit in the cluster. If virtual domains are not enabled, all clusters unit are always operating in virtual cluster 1. If virtual domains are enabled, a cluster unit may be operating in virtual cluster 1 or virtual cluster 2. The member number indicates the position of the cluster unit in the cluster members list. Member 0 is the primary unit. Member 1 is the first subordinate unit, member 2 is the second subordinate unit, and so on.

HA log messages

See the FortiOS log message reference for a listing of and descriptions of the HA log messages.

FortiGate HA message “HA master heartbeat interface lost neighbor inform- ation”

The following HA log messages may be recorded by an operating cluster:

2009-02-16 11:06:34 device_id=FG2001111111 log_id=0105035001 type=event subtype=ha pri=critical vd=root msg=”HA slave heartbeat interface internal lost neighbor information”

2009-02-16 11:06:40 device_id=FG2001111111 log_id=0105035001 type=event subtype=ha pri=notice vd=root msg=”Virtual cluster 1 of group 0 detected new joined HA member”

2009-02-16 11:06:40 device_id=FG2001111111 log_id=0105035001 type=event subtype=ha pri=notice vd=root msg=”HA master heartbeat interface internal get peer information”

These log messages indicate that the cluster units could not connect to each other over the HA heartbeat link for the period of time that is given by hb-interval x hb-lost-threshold, which is 1.2 seconds with the default values.

To diagnose this problem

1. Check all heartbeat interface connections including cables and switches to make sure they are connected and operating normally.
2. Use the following commands to display the status of the heartbeat interfaces.
get hardware nic
diagnose hardware deviceinfo nic
The status information may indicate the interface status and link status and also indicate if a large number of errors have been detected.

3. If the log message only appears during peak traffic times, increase the tolerance for missed HA heartbeat packets by using the following commands to increase the lost heartbeat threshold and heartbeat interval:
config system ha
set hb-lost-threshold 12 set hb-interval 4
These settings multiply by 4 the loss detection interval. You can use higher values as well.

This condition can also occur if the cluster units are located in different buildings or even different geographical locations. Called a distributed cluster, as a result of the separation it may take a relatively long time for heartbeat packets to be transmitted between cluster units. You can support a distributed cluster by increasing the heartbeat interval so that the cluster expects extra time between heartbeat packets.

4. Optionally disable session-pickup to reduce the processing load on the heartbeat interfaces.
5. Instead of disabling session-pickup you can enable session-pickup-delay to reduce the number of sessions that are synchronized. With this option enabled only sessions that are active for more than 30 seconds are synchronized.
It may be useful to monitor CPU and memory usage to check for low memory and high CPU usage. You can configure event logging to monitor CPU and memory usage. You can also enable the CPU over usage and memory low SNMP events.

Once this monitoring is in place, try and determine if there have been any changes in the network or an increase of traffic recently that could be the cause. Check to see if the problem happens frequently and if so what the pattern is.

To monitor the CPU of the cluster units and troubleshoot further, use the following procedure and commands:

get system performance status get system performance top 2 diagnose sys top 2
These commands repeated at frequent intervals will show the activity of the CPU and the number of sessions. Search the Fortinet Knowledge Base for articles about monitoring CPU and Memory usage.
If the problem persists, gather the following information (a console connection might be necessary if connectivity is lost) and provide it to Technical Support when opening a ticket:

l Debug log from the web-based manager: System > Config > Advanced > Download Debug Log
l CLI command output:

diagnose sys top 2 (keep it running for 20 seconds)
get system performance status (repeat this command multiple times to get good samples)
get system ha status diagnose sys ha status
diagnose sys ha dump-by {all options}
diagnose netlink device list
diagnose hardware deviceinfo nic
execute log filter category 1 execute log display

Formatting cluster unit hard disks (log disks)

If you need to format the hard disk (also called log disk or disk storage) of one or more cluster units you should disconnect the unit from the cluster and use the execute formatlogdisk command to format the cluster unit hard disk then add the unit back to the cluster.

For information about how to remove a unit from a cluster and add it back, see Disconnecting a cluster unit from a cluster on page 1494 and Adding a disconnected FortiGate unit back to its cluster on page 1495 .

Once you add the cluster unit with the formatted log disk back to the cluster you should make it the primary unit before removing other units from the cluster to format their log disks and then add them back to the cluster.

Having trouble configuring your Fortinet hardware or have some questions you need answered? Check Out The Fortinet Guru Youtube Channel! Want someone else to deal with it for you? Get some consulting from Fortinet GURU!

This entry was posted in FortiOS 5.4 Handbook and tagged on by .

About Mike

Michael Pruett, CISSP has a wide range of cyber-security and network engineering expertise. The plethora of vendors that resell hardware but have zero engineering knowledge resulting in the wrong hardware or configuration being deployed is a major pet peeve of Michael's. This site was started in an effort to spread information while providing the option of quality consulting services at a much lower price than Fortinet Professional Services. Owns PacketLlama.Com (Fortinet Hardware Sales) and Office Of The CISO, LLC (Cybersecurity consulting firm).

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