Configuring GTP on FortiOS Carrier

Reason to be denied if applicable

If the packet that generated this log entry was denied or blocked, this field will include what part of FortiOS denied or blocked that packet. Such as firewall, antivirus, webfilter, or spamfilter.

An example of the above log message format is for a Tunnel deleted log entry. When a tunnel is deleted, the log entry contains the following information:

  • Timestamp
  • Interface name (if applicable)
  • SGSN IP address (source IP)
  • GGSN IP address (destination IP)
  • Tunnel ID
  • Tunnel duration time in seconds
  • Number of messages sent to the SGSN
  • Number of messages sent to the GGSN

GTP message type filtering

FortiOS Carrier supports message filtering in GTP by the type of message. This section includes:

Common message types on carrier networks

Configuring message type filtering in FortiOS Carrier

Common message types on carrier networks

Carrier networks include many types of messages — some concern the network itself, others are content moving across the network, and still others deal with handshaking, billing, or other administration based issues.

GTP contains two major parts GTP for the control plane (GTP-C) and GTP for user data tunnelling (GTP-U). Outside of those areas there are only unknown message types.


GTPC messages

GTP-C contains the networking layer messages. These address routing, versioning, and other similar low level issues.

When a subscriber requests a Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context, the SGSN will send a create PDP context request GTP-C message to the GGSN giving details of the subscriber’s request. The GGSN will then respond with a create PDP context response GTP-C message which will either give details of the PDP context actually activated or will indicate a failure and give a reason for that failure. This is a UDP message on port 212.

GTP-C message types include Path Management Messages, Location Management Messages, and Mobility Management Messages.


Path Management Messages

Path management is used by one GSN to detect if another GSN is alive, or if it has restarted after a failure.

The path management procedure checks if a given GSN is alive or has been restarted after a failure. In case of SGSN restart, all MM and PDP contexts are deleted in the SGSN, since the associated data is stored in a volatile memory. In the case of GGSN restart, all PDP contexts are deleted in the GGSN.


Tunnel Management Messages

The tunnel management procedures are used to create, update, and delete GTP tunnels in order to route IP PDUs between an MS and an external PDN via the GSNs.

The PDP context contains the subscriber’s session information when the subscriber has an active session. When a mobile wants to use GPRS, it must first attach and then activate a PDP context. This allocates a PDP context data structure in the SGSN that the subscriber is currently visiting and the GGSN serving the subscriber’s access point.

Tunnel management procedures are defined to create, update, and delete tunnels within the GPRS backbone network. A GTP tunnel is used to deliver packets between an SGSN and a GGSN. A GTP tunnel is identified in each GSN node by a TEID, an IP address, and a UDP port number.


Location Management Messages

The location-management procedure is performed during the network-requested PDP context activation procedure if the GGSN does not have an SS7 MAP interface (i.e., Gc interface). It is used to transfer location messages between the GGSN and a GTP-MAP protocol-converting GSN in the GPRS backbone network.

Location management subprocedures are used between a GGSN that does not support an SS7 MAP interface (i.e., Gc interface) and a GTP-MAP protocol-conversing GSN. This GSN supports both Gn and Gc interfaces and is able to perform a protocol conversing between GTP and MAP.


Mobility Management Messages

The MM procedures are used by a new SGSN in order to retrieve the IMSI and the authentication information or MM and PDP context information in an old SGSN. They are performed during the GPRS attach and the inter- SGSN routing update procedures.

The MM procedures are used between SGSNs at the GPRS-attach and inter-SGSN routing update procedures. An identity procedure has been defined to retrieve the IMSI and the authentication information in an old SGSN. This procedure may be performed at the GPRS attach. A recovery procedure enables information related to MM and PDP contexts in an old SGSN to be retrieved. This procedure is started by a new SGSN during an inter-SGSN RA update procedure.


GTPU messages

GTP-U is focused on user related issues including tunneling, and billing. GTP-U message types include MBMS messages, and GTP-U and Charging Management Messages


MBMS messages

Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Services (MBMS) have recently begun to be offered over GSM and UMTS networks on UTRAN and GERAN radio access technologies. MBMS is mainly used for mobile TV, using up to four GSM timeslots for one MBMS connection. One MBMS packet flow is replicated by GGSN, SGSN and RNCs.

MBMS is split into the MBMS Bearer Service and the MBMS User Service. The MBMS User Service is basically the MBMS Service Layer and offers a Streaming- and a Download Delivery Method. The Streaming Delivery method can be used for continuous transmissions like Mobile TV services. The Download Method is intended for “Download and Play” services.


GTPU and Charging Management Messages

SGSNs and GGSNs listen for GTP-U messages on UDP port 2152.

GTP‘ (GTP prime) is used for billing messages. It uses the common GTP messages (GTP Version Not

Supported, Echo Request and Echo Response) and adds additional messages related to billing procedures.


Unknown Action messages

If the system doesn’t know what type of message it is, it falls into this category. This is an important category of message because malformed messages may appear and need to be handled with security in mind.

Fortinet best practices dictate that you set Unknown Action messages to deny for security reasons.

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