Hashed Message Authentication Codes – Message Digest 5 (HMAC-MD5) is a mechanism for applying a cryptographic hash function to the message authentication process. It is applied at both Level 1 and Level 2 routing. In IS-IS, an HMAC-MD5 can be applied to each type of LSP, on different interfaces, and with different passwords.
The “AH Key” is used as a shared secret between two communicating parties. The Key is not a “cryptographic key” as used in a traditional sense. Instead, the AH key (shared secret) is hashed with the transmitted data and thus, assures that an intervening party cannot duplicate the authentication data. […] Implementation should, and as frequently as possible, change the AH key. Keys need to be chosen at random, or generated using a cryptographically strong pseudo-random generator seeded with a random seed.”
Clear Text authentication uses the configuration commands area-password and domain-password for authentication, but when migrating from Clear Text authentication to HMAC-MD5, these command settings are automatically overwritten.
By the year 2005, the MD5 hash function had been identified as vulnerable to collision search attacks and various weaknesses. While such vulnerabilities do not compromise the use of MD5 within HMAC, administrators need to be aware of potential developments in cryptanalysis and cryptographic hash functions in the likely event that the underlying hash function needs to be replaced.
Enhanced Clear Text authentication is an extension to Clear Text authentication that allows the encryption of passwords as they are displayed in the configuration. It includes a series of authentication mode commands and an authentican key chain, and allows for more simple password modification and password management. Enhanced Clear Text authentication also provides for smoother migration to and from changing authentication types. Intermediate systems continue to use the original authentication method until all the area routers are updated to use the new method.
Authentication key chain
A key chain is a list of one or more authentication keys including the send and receive lifetimes for each key. Keys are used for authenticating routing packets only during the specified lifetimes. A router migrates from one key to the next according to the scheduled send and receive lifetimes. If an active key is unavailable, then the PDU is automatically discarded.
From RFC 5310:
It should be noted that the cryptographic strength of the HMAC depends upon the cryptographic strength of the underlying hash function and on the size and quality of the key.
This section includes:
- Routing loops
- Split horizon and Poison reverse updates
Normally in routing, a path between two addresses is chosen and traffic is routed along that path from one address to the other. When there is a routing loop, that normal path doubles back on itself creating a loop. When there are loops, the network has problems.
A routing loop happens when a normally functioning network has an outage, and one or more routers are offline. When packets encounter this, an alternate route is attempted to maneuver around the outage. During this phase it is possible for a route to be attempted that involves going back a hop, and trying a different hop forward. If that hop forward is blocked by the outage as well, a hop back and possibly the original hop forward may be selected. You can see if this continues, how it can consume not only network bandwidth but also many resources on those routers affected. The worst part is this situation will continue until the network administrator changes the router settings, or the downed routers come back online.
Routing loop effect on the network
In addition to this “traffic jam” of routed packets, every time the routing table for a router changes that router sends an update out to all of the IS-IS routers connected to it. In a network loop, its possible for a router to change its routes very quickly as it tries and fails along these new routes. This can quickly result in a flood of updates being sent out, which can effectively grind the network to a halt until the problem is fixed.
How can you spot a routing loop
Any time network traffic slows down, you will be asking yourself if it is a network loop or not. Often slowdowns are normal, they are not a full stoppage, and normal traffic resumes in a short period of time.
If the slow down is a full halt of traffic or a major slowdown does not return to normal quickly, you need to do serious troubleshooting quickly.
Some methods to troubleshoot your outage include:
- Checking your logs
- Using SNMP network monitoring
- Using Link Health Monitor and e-mail alerts
- Looking at the packet flow
If you aren’t running SNMP, dead gateway detection, or you have non-Fortinet routers in your network, you can use networking tools such as ping and traceroute to define the outage on your network and begin to fix it.
Checking your logs
If your routers log events to a central location, it can be easy to check the logs for your network for any outages. On your FortiGate unit, go to Log & Report > Log & Archive Access. You will want to look at both event logs and traffic logs. Events to look for will generally fall under CPU and memory usage, interfaces going offline (due to dead gateway detection), and other similar system events.
Once you have found and fixed your network problem, you can go back to the logs and create a report to better see how things developed during the problem. This type of forensics analysis can better help you prepare for next time.
Using SNMP network monitoring
If your network had no problems one minute and slows to a halt the next, chances are something changed to cause that problem. Most of the time an offline router is the cause, and once you find that router and bring it back online, things will return to normal.
If you can enable a hardware monitoring system such as SNMP or sFlow on your routers, you can be notified of the outage and where it is exactly as soon as it happens.
Ideally you can configure SNMP on all your FortiGate routers and be alerted to all outages as they occur.
To use SNMP to detect potential routing loops
1. Go to System > Config > SNMP.
2. Enable SNMP Agent.
3. Optionally enter the Description, Location, and Contact information for this device for easier location of the problem report.
4. In either SNMP v1/v2c section or SNMP v3 section, as appropriate, select Create New.
5. Enter the Community Name that you want to use.
6. In Hosts, select Add to add an IP address where you will be monitoring the FortiGate unit. You can add up to 8 different addresses.
7. Ensure that ports 161 and 162 (SNMP queries and traps) are allowed through your security policies.
8. In SNMP Event, select the events you want to be notified of. For routing loops this should include
CPU Overusage, Memory Low, and possibly Log disk space low. If there are problems, the log will be filling up quickly, and the FortiGate unit’s resources will be overused.
9. Select OK.
10. Configure SNMP host (manager) software on your administration computer. This will monitor the SNMP information sent out by the FortiGate unit. Typically you can configure this software to alert you to outages or CPU spikes that may indicate a routing loop.
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