FortiGate Session Life Support Protocol (FGSP)

FortiGate Session Life Support Protocol (FGSP)

In a network that already includes load balancing (either with load balancers or routers) for traffic redundancy, two identical FortiGate units can be integrated into the load balancing configuration using the FortiGate Session Life Support Protocol (FGSP). The external load balancers or routers can distribute sessions among the FortiGate units and the FGSP performs session synchronization of IPv4 and IPv6 TCP, UDP, ICMP, expectation, and NAT sessions and IPsec tunnels to keep the session tables of both FortiGate units synchronized.

You can use the config system cluster-sync command to configure the FortiGate Session Life Support Protocol (FGSP) (previously called TCP session synchronization or standalone session synchronization) between two FortiGate units. The two FortiGate units must be the same model. The FGSP synchronizes both IPv4 and IPv6 TCP, UDP, ICMP, expectation, and NAT sessions and IPsec tunnels. You can use this feature with external routers or load balancers configured to distribute or load balance sessions between two peer FortiGate units. If one of the peers fails, session failover occurs and active sessions fail over to the peer that is still operating. This failover occurs without any loss of data. As well, the external routers or load balancers will detect the failover and re-distribute all sessions to the peer that is still operating.

In previous versions of FortiOS the FGSP was called TCP session synchronization or standalone session synchronization. However, the FGSP has been expanded to include configuration synchronization and session synchronization of connectionless sessions, expectation sessions, and NAT sessions and IPsec tunnels.

You cannot configure FGSP HA when FGCP HA is enabled. However FGSP HA is com- patible with VRRP.

FGSP or standalone session synchronization is not supported if the FortiGate units are running different firmware versions.

The FGSP can be used instead of FGCP HA to provide session synchronization between two peer FortiGate units. If the external load balancers direct all sessions to one peer the affect is similar to active-passive FGCP HA. If external load balancers or routers load balance traffic to both peers, the effect is similar to active-active FGCP HA. The load balancers should be configured so that all of the packets for any given session are processed by the same peer. This includes return packets.

 

FGSP HA

fgsp-ha

 

 

 

By default, FGSP synchronizes all IPv4 and IPv6 TCP sessions, IPsec tunnels, and also synchronizes the configuration of the FortiGate units.

You can optionally enable session pickup to synchronize connectionless (UDP and ICMP) sessions, expectation sessions, and NAT sessions. If you do not enable session pickup, the FGSP does not share session tables for the particular session type and sessions do not resume after a failover. All sessions that are interrupted by the failover and must be re-established at the application level. Many protocols can successfully restart sessions with little, or no, loss of data. Others may not recover easily. Enable session pickup for sessions that may be difficult to reestablish. Since session pickup requires FortiGate resources, only enable this feature for sessions that you need to have synchronized.

You can also optionally add filters to control which sessions are synchronized. You can add filters to only synchronize packets from specified source and destination addresses, specified source and destination interfaces, and specified services.

Load balancing and session failover is done by external routers or load balancers instead of by the FGSP. The FortiGate units just perform session synchronization to support session failover.

 

Synchronizing the configuration

The FGSP also includes configuration synchronization, allowing you to make configuration changes once for both FortiGate units instead of requiring you to make duplicate configuration changes on each FortiGate unit. Settings that identify the FortiGate unit to the network, for example, interface IP addresses and BGP neighbor settings, are not synchronized so each FortiGate unit maintains its identity on the network.

By default configuration synchronization is disabled. You can use the following command to enable it.

config system ha

set standalone-config-sync enable end

 

IPsec tunnel synchronization

When you use the config system cluster-sync command to enable FGSP, IPsec keys and other runtime data (but not actual tunnel sessions) are synchronized between cluster units . This means that if one of the cluster units goes down the cluster unit that is still operating can quickly get IPsec tunnels re-established without re-negotiating them. However, after a failover all existing tunnel sessions on the failed FortiGate have to be restarted on the still operating FortiGate.

IPsec tunnel sync only supports dialup IPsec. The interfaces on both FortiGates that are tunnel endpoints must have the same IP addresses and external routers must be configured to load balance IPsec tunnel sessions to the FortiGates in the cluster.

 

Synchronizing UDP and ICMP (connectionless) sessions

In many configurations, due to their non-stateful nature, UDP and ICMP sessions don’t need to be synchronized to naturally failover. However, if its required you can configure the FGSP to synchronize UDP and ICMP sessions by entering the following command:

config system ha

set session-pickup enable

set session-pickup-connectionless enable end

 

Synchronizing NAT sessions

By default, NAT session are not synchronized. However, the FGSP can synchronize NAT session if you enter the following command:

config system ha

set session-pickup enable

set session-pickup-nat enable end

However, if you want NAT sessions to resume after a failover you should not configure NAT to use the destination interface IP address since the FGSP FortiGate units have different IP addresses. With this configuration, after a failover all sessions that include the IP addresses of interfaces on the failed FortiGate unit will have nowhere to go since the IP addresses of the failed FortiGate unit will no longer be on the network.

Instead, in an FGSP configuration, if you want NAT sessions to failover you should use IP pools with the type set to overload (which is the default IP pool type). For example:

config firewall ippool edit FGSP-pool

set type overload

set startip 172.20.120.10 set endip 172.20.120.20

end

Then when you configure NAT firewall policies, turn on NAT and select to use dynamic IP pool and select the IP Pool that you added. Add the same IP pools and firewall policies to both FortiGate units.

 

Synchronizing expectation (asymmetric) sessions

By default, expectation sessions (or asymmetric sessions) are not synchronized. Normally, session synchronization cannot be asymmetric because it is stateful. So all of the packets of a given session must be processed on the same peer. This includes return packets.

However, if you have an asymmetric routing configuration, you can enter the following command to synchronize asymmetric sessions by dynamically detecting asymmetric sessions and disabling anti-reply for these sessions.

config system ha

set session-pickup enable

set session-pickup-expectation enable end

The FGSP enforces firewall policies for asymmetric traffic, including cases where the TCP 3-way handshake is split between two FortiGates. For example, FGT-A receives the TCP-SYN, FGT-B receives the TCP-SYN-ACK, and FGT-A receives the TCP-ACK. Under normal conditions a firewall will drop this connection since the 3-way handshake was not seen by the same firewall. However two FortiGates with FGSP configured will be able to properly pass this traffic since the firewall sessions are synchronized.

If traffic will be highly asymmetric, as described above, the following command must be enabled on both FortiGates.

config system ha

set session-pickup enable

set session-pickup-expectation enable end

This asymmetric function can also work with connectionless UDP and ICMP traffic. The following command needs to enabled on both FortiGates.

 

config system ha

set session-pickup enable

set session-pickup-connectionless enable end

Synchronizing asymmetric traffic can be very useful in situations where multiple Internet connections from different ISPs are spread across two FortiGates. Since it is typically not possible to guarantee Internet bound traffic leaving via an ISP will return using the exact same ISP, the FGSP provides critical firewall functions in this situation.

The FGSP also has applications in virtualized computing environments where virtualized hosts move between data centers. The firewall session synchronization features of FGSP allow for more flexibility than in traditional firewalling functions.

 

Security profile flow-based inspection and asymmetric traffic

Security profile inspection (flow or proxy based) for a session is not expected to work properly if the traffic in the session is balanced across more than one FortiGate in either direction. Flow-based inspection should be used in FGSP deployments.

For an environment where traffic is symmetric, security profile inspection can be used with the following limitations:

  • No session synchronization for the sessions inspected using proxy-based inspection. Sessions will drop and need to be reestablished after data path failover.
  • Sessions with flow-based inspection will failover; however, inspection of failed over sessions after the failover may not work.

A single FortiGate must see both the request and reply traffic for security profile inspection to function correctly. For environments where asymmetric traffic is expected, security profile inspection should not be used.

 

Notes and limitations

FGSP HA has the following limitations:

  • The FGSP is a global configuration option. As a result you can only add one service to a filter configuration. You cannot add custom services or service groups even if virtual domains are not enabled.
  • You can only add one filter configuration to a given FGSP configuration. However, you can add multiple filters by adding multiple identical FGSP configurations, each one with a different filter configuration.
  • Sessions accepted by security policies with security profiles configured are not synchronized.
  • FGSP HA is configured from the CLI.
  • FGSP HA is available for FortiGate units or virtual domains operating in NAT/Route or Transparent mode. NAT sessions are not synchronized in either mode (unless NAT synchronization is enabled as described in Synchronizing NAT sessions on page 1581). In NAT/Route mode, only sessions for route mode security policies are synchronized. In Transparent mode, only sessions for normal Transparent mode policies are synchronized.
  • FGSP HA is supported for traffic on physical interfaces, VLAN interfaces, zones, aggregate interfaces, and NPx (NP4, NP6 etc.) accelerated interfaces. The FGSP has not been tested for inter-vdom links, between HA clusters, and for redundant interfaces.
  • The names of the matching interfaces, including VLAN interfaces, aggregate interfaces and so on, must be the same on both peers.

Having trouble configuring your Fortinet hardware or have some questions you need answered? Ask your questions in the comments below!!! Want someone else to deal with it for you? Get some consulting from Fortinet GURU!

Leave a Reply

Name *
Email *
Website