Configuring RAID

Configuring RAID

Go to System > RAID to configure a redundant array of independent disks (RAID) for the FortiMail hard disks that are used to store logs and email.

Most FortiMail models can be configured to use RAID with their hard disks. The default RAID level should give good results, but you can modify the configuration to suit your individual requirements for enhanced performance and reliability. For more information, see “Configuring RAID for FortiMail 400B/400C/5002B models” on page 299 or “Configuring RAID on FortiMail 1000D/2000A/2000B/3000C/3000D/4000A models” on page 301.

You can configure the RAID levels for the local disk partitions used for storing email files or log files (in the case of FortiMail-400/400B/400C), depending on your requirements for performance, resiliency, and cost.

RAID events can be logged and reported with alert email. These events include disk full and disk failure notices. For more information, see “About FortiMail logging” on page 665, and “Configuring alert email” on page 682.

About RAID levels

Supported RAID levels vary by FortiMail model.

FortiMail 400B, 400C, and 5002B models use software RAID controllers which support RAID levels 0 or 1. You can configure the log disk with a RAID level that is different from the email disk.

FortiMail 1000D, 2000A, 2000B, 3000C, 3000D and 4000A models use hardware RAID controllers that require that the log disk and mail disk use the same RAID level.

FortiMail 100C, 200D, and 5001A models do not support RAID.

The available RAID levels depend on the number of hard drives installed in the FortiMail unit and different FortiMail models come with different number of factory-installed hard drives. You can added more hard drives if required. For details, see “Replacing a RAID disk” on page 304.

The following tables describe RAID levels supported by each FortiMail model.

Table 30:FortiMail supported RAID levels

Number of Installed Hard Drives Available RAID Levels Default RAID Level
1 0 0
2 0, 1 1
3 0, 1 + hot spare, 5 5
4 5 + hot spare, 10 10
5 5 + hot spare, 10 + hot spares 10 + hot spares
6 10, 50 10
7 or more 10, 10 + hot spares, 50, 50 + hot spares 50 + hot spares

Hot spares

FortiMail models with a hardware RAID controller have a hot spare RAID option. This feature consists of one or more disks that are pre-installed with the other disks in the unit. The hot spare disk is idle until an active hard disk in the RAID fails. Then the RAID immediately puts the hot spare disk into service and starts to rebuild the data from the failed disk onto it. This rebuilding may take up to several hours depending on system load and amount of data stored on the RAID, but the RAID continues without interruption during the process.

The hot spare feature has one or more extra hard disks installed with the RAID. A RAID 10 configuration requires two disks per RAID 1, and has only one hot spare disk. A RAID 50 configuration requires three disks per RAID 5, and can have up to two hot spare disks.

Configuring RAID for FortiMail 400B/400C/5002B models

To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:

  • Domain must be System
  • access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category

For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 290.

To view and configure RAID levels

  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.

Figure 124:RAID System tab (FortiMail-400)

GUI item Description
Device Displays the name of the RAID unit. This indicates whether it is used for log message data or for mailboxes, mail queues, and other email-related data.

This is hard-coded and not configurable.

Unit Displays the internal mount point of the RAID unit. This is hard-coded and not configurable.
Level Displays the RAID level that indicates whether it is configured for optimal speed, failure tolerance, or both. For more information on RAID levels, see “About RAID levels” on page 298.
Resync Action Displays the status of the RAID device.

•      idle: The RAID is idle, with no data being written to or read from the RAID disks.

•      dirty: Data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to disk.

•      clean: No data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the RAID unit.

•      errors: Errors were detected on the RAID unit.

•      no-errors: No errors were detected on the RAID unit.

•      dirty no-errors: Data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the RAID unit, and there are currently no detected RAID errors. For a FortiMail unit in active use, this is the expected setting.

•      clean no-errors: No data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the RAID unit, and there are currently no RAID errors. For a FortiMail unit with an unmounted array that is not in active use, this is the expected setting.

Resync Status If the RAID unit is not synchronized and you have clicked Click here to check array to cause it to rebuild itself, such as after a hard disk is replaced in the RAID unit, a progress bar indicates rebuild progress.

The progress bar appears only when Click here to check array has been clicked and the status of the RAID is not clean no-errors.

Speed Displays the average speed in kilobytes (KB) per second of the data transfer for the resynchronization. This is affected by the disk being in use during the resynchronization.
GUI item Description
Apply

(button)

Click to save changes.
Refresh

(button)

Click to manually initiate the tab’s display to refresh itself with current information.
ID/Port Indicates the identifier of each hard disk visible to the RAID controller.
Part of Unit Indicates the RAID unit to which the hard disk belongs, if any.

To be usable by the FortiMail unit, you must add the hard disk to a RAID unit.

Status Indicates the hardware viability of the hard disk.
Size Indicates the capacity of the hard disk, in gigabytes (GB).
Delete

(button)

Click to unmount a hard disk before swapping it.

After replacing the disk, add it to a RAID unit, then click Re-scan.

Back up data on the disk before beginning this procedure. Changing the device’s RAID level temporarily suspends all mail processing and erases all data on the hard disk. For more information on creating a backup, see “Backup and restore” on page 218.

  1. In the Level column, click the row corresponding to the RAID device whose RAID level you want to change.

The Level field changes to a drop-down menu.

  1. Select RAID level 0 or 1.
  2. Click Apply.

A warning message appears.

  1. Click Yes to confirm the change.

Configuring RAID on FortiMail 1000D/2000A/2000B/3000C/3000D/4000A models

To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:

  • Domain must be System
  • access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category

For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 290.

To configure RAID

  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.

Figure 125:RAID System tab (FortiMail-2000A/2000B/3000C/4000A)

GUI item Description
Model Displays the model of the hardware RAID controller.
Driver Displays the version of the RAID controller’s driver software.
Firmware Displays the version of the RAID controller’s firmware.
Set RAID level Select the RAID level, then click Change.

For more information about RAID levels, see “About RAID levels” on page 298.

Change

(button)

From Set RAID level, select the RAID style, then click this button to apply the RAID level.
Re-scan (button) Click to rebuild the RAID unit with disks that are currently a member of it, or detect newly added hard disks, and start a diagnostic check.

List of RAID units in the array

Unit Indicates the identifier of the RAID unit, such as u0.
Type Indicates the RAID level currently in use.

For more information, see “About RAID levels” on page 298. To change the RAID level, use Set RAID level.

GUI item Description
Status Indicates the status of the RAID unit.

•      OK: The RAID unit is operating normally.

•      Warning: The RAID controller is currently performing a background task (rebuilding, migrating, or initializing the RAID unit).

Caution: Do not remove hard disks while this status is displayed. Removing active hard disks can cause hardware damage.

•      Error: The RAID unit is degraded or inoperable. Causes vary, such as when too many hard disks in the unit fail and the RAID unit no longer has the minimum number of disks required to operate in your selected RAID level. To correct such a situation, replace the failed hard disks.

•      No Units: No RAID units are available.

Note: If both Error and Warning conditions exist, the status appears as Error.

Size Indicates the total disk space, in gigabytes (GB), available for the RAID unit.

Available space varies by your RAID level selection. Due to some space being consumed to store data required by RAID, available storage space will not equal the sum of the capacities of hard disks in the unit.

Ignore ECC Click turn on to ignore the Error Correcting Code (ECC). This option is off by default.

Ignoring the ECC can speed up building the RAID, but the RAID will not be as fault-tolerant.

This option is not available on FortiMail-2000B/3000C models.

List of hard disks in the array

ID/Port Indicates the identifier of each hard disk visible to the RAID controller.
Part of Unit Indicates the RAID unit to which the hard disk belongs, if any.

To be usable by the FortiMail unit, you must add the hard disk to a RAID unit.

Status Indicates the hardware viability of the hard disk.

•      OK: The hard disk is operating normally.

•      UNKNOWN: The viability of the hard disk is not known. Causes vary, such as the hard disk not being a member of a RAID unit. In such a case, the RAID controller does not monitor its current status.

Size Indicates the capacity of the hard disk, in gigabytes (GB).
Delete

(button)

Click to unmount a hard disk before swapping it.

After replacing the disk, add it to a RAID unit, then click Re-scan.

To change RAID levels

Back up data on the disk before beginning this procedure. Changing the device’s RAID level temporarily suspends all mail processing and erases all data on the hard disk. For more information on creating a backup, see “Backup and restore” on page 218.

  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
  2. From Set RAID level, select a RAID level.
  3. Click Change.

The FortiMail unit changes the RAID level and reboots.

Replacing a RAID disk

When replacing a disk in the RAID array, the new disk must have the same or greater storage capacity than the existing disks in the array. If the new disk has a larger capacity than the other disks in the array, only the amount equal to the smallest hard disk will be used. For example, if the RAID has 400 GB disks, and you replace one with a 500 GB disk, to be consistent with the other disks, only 400 GB of the new disk will be used.

FortiMail units support hot swap; shutting down the FortiMail unit during hard disk replacement is not required.

To replace a disk in the array

  1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
  2. In the row corresponding to the hard disk that you want to replace (for example, p4), select the hard disk and click Delete.

The RAID controller removes the hard disk from the list.

  1. Protect the FortiMail unit from static electricity by using measures such as applying an antistatic wrist strap.
  2. Physically remove the hard disk that corresponds to the one you removed in the web UI from its drive bay on the FortiMail unit.

On a FortiMail-2000A or FortiMail-4000A, press in the tab, then pull the drive handle to remove the dive. On a FortiMail-2000B or FortiMail-3000C, press the button to eject the drive.

To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-2000A, refer to the following diagram.

Drive 1 (p0) Drive 4 (p3)
Drive 2 (p1) Drive 5 (p4)
Drive 3 (p2) Drive 6 (p5)

To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-2000B or 3000C, refer to the following diagram.

Drive 1 (p0) Drive 3 (p2) Drive 5 (p4)
Drive 2 (p1) Drive 4 (p3) Drive 6 (p5)

To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-4000A, look for the failed disk. (Disk drive locations vary by the RAID controller model.)

  1. Replace the hard disk with a new hard disk, inserting it into its drive bay on the FortiMail unit.
  2. Click Re-scan.

The RAID controller will scan for available hard disks and should locate the new hard disk. Depending on the RAID level, the FortiMail unit may either automatically add the new hard disk to the RAID unit or allocate it as a spare that will be automatically added to the array if one of the hard disks in the array fails.

The FortiMail unit rebuilds the RAID array with the new hard disk. Time required varies by the size of the array.


Having trouble configuring your Fortinet hardware or have some questions you need answered? Ask your questions in the comments below!!! Want someone else to deal with it for you? Get some consulting from Fortinet GURU!

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