About the HA cluster index and the execute ha manage command

About the HA cluster index and the execute ha manage command

When a cluster starts up, the FortiGate Cluster Protocol (FGCP) assigns a cluster index and a HA heartbeat IP address to each cluster unit based on the serial number of the cluster unit. The FGCP selects the cluster unit with the highest serial number to become the primary unit. The FGCP assigns a cluster index of 0 and an HA heartbeat IP address of 169.254.0.1 to this unit. The FGCP assigns a cluster index of 1 and an HA heartbeat IP address of 169.254.0.2 to the cluster unit with the second highest serial number. If the cluster contains more units, the cluster unit with the third highest serial number is assigned a cluster index of 2 and an HA heartbeat IP address of 169.254.0.3, and so on. You can display the cluster index assigned to each cluster unit using the get system ha status command. Also when you use the execute ha manage command you select a cluster unit to log into by entering its cluster index.

The cluster index and HA heartbeat IP address only change if a unit leaves the cluster or if a new unit joins the cluster. When one of these events happens, the FGCP resets the cluster index and HA heartbeat IP address of each cluster unit according to serial number in the same way as when the cluster first starts up.

Each cluster unit keeps its assigned cluster index and HA heartbeat IP address even as the units take on different roles in the cluster. After the initial cluster index and HA heartbeat IP addresses are set according to serial number, the FGCP checks other primary unit selection criteria such as device priority and monitored interfaces. Checking these criteria could result in selecting a cluster unit without the highest serial number to operate as the primary unit.

Even if the cluster unit without the highest serial number now becomes the primary unit, the cluster indexes and HA heartbeat IP addresses assigned to the individual cluster units do not change. Instead the FGCP assigns a second cluster index, which could be called the operating cluster index, to reflect this role change. The operating cluster index is 0 for the primary unit and 1 and higher for the other units in the cluster. By default both sets of cluster indexes are the same. But if primary unit selection selects the cluster unit that does not have the highest serial number to be the primary unit then this cluster unit is assigned an operating cluster index of 0. The operating cluster index is used by the FGCP only. You can display the operating cluster index assigned to each cluster unit using the get system ha status command. There are no CLI commands that reference the operating cluster index.

Even though there are two cluster indexes there is only one HA heartbeat IP address and the HA heartbeat address is not affected by a change in the operating cluster index.

 

Using the execute ha manage command

When you use the CLI command execute ha manage <index_integer> to connect to the CLI of another cluster unit, the <index_integer> that you enter is the cluster index of the unit that you want to connect to.

 

Using get system ha status to display cluster indexes

You can display the cluster index assigned to each cluster unit using the CLI command get system ha status. The following example shows the information displayed by the get system ha status command for a cluster consisting of two FortiGate-5001SX units operating in active-passive HA mode with virtual domains not enabled and without virtual clustering.

get system ha status

Model: 5000

Mode: a-p

Group: 0

Debug: 0

ses_pickup: disable

Master:128 5001_slot_7 FG50012205400050 0

Slave :128 5001_slot_11 FG50012204400045 1 number of vcluster: 1

vcluster 1: work 169.254.0.1

Master:0 FG50012205400050

Slave :1 FG50012204400045

In this example, the cluster unit with serial number FG50012205400050 has the highest serial number and so has a cluster index of 0 and the cluster unit with serial number FG50012204400045 has a cluster index of 1. From the CLI of the primary (or master) unit of this cluster you can connect to the CLI of the subordinate (or slave) unit

using the following command:

execute ha manage 1

This works because the cluster unit with serial number FG50012204400045 has a cluster index of 1.

The get system ha status command output shows two similar lists of indexes and serial numbers. The listing on the sixth and seventh lines of the command output are the cluster indexes assigned according to cluster unit serial number. These are the cluster indexes that you enter when using the execute ha manage command. The cluster indexes shown in the last two lines of the command output are the operating cluster indexes that reflect how the cluster units are actually operating in the cluster. In this example both sets of cluster indexes are the same.

The last three lines of the command output display the status of vcluster 1. In a cluster consisting of two cluster units operating without virtual domains enabled all clustering actually takes place in virtual cluster 1. HA is designed to work this way to support virtual clustering. If this cluster was operating with virtual domains enabled, adding virtual cluster 2 is similar to adding a new copy of virtual cluster 1. Virtual cluster 2 is visible in the get system ha status command output when you add virtual domains to virtual cluster 2.

The HA heartbeat IP address displayed on line 8 is the HA heartbeat IP address of the cluster unit that is actually operating as the primary unit. For a default configuration this IP address will always be 169.254.0.1 because the cluster unit with the highest serial number will be the primary unit. This IP address changes if the operating primary unit is not the primary unit with the highest serial number.

 

Example actual and operating cluster indexes do not match

This example shows get system ha status command output for same cluster of two FortiGate-5001SX units. However, in this example the device priority of the cluster unit with the serial number FG50012204400045 is increased to 200. As a result the cluster unit with the lowest serial number becomes the primary unit. This means the actual and operating cluster indexes of the cluster units do not match.

get system ha status

Model: 5000

Mode: a-p

Group: 0

Debug: 0

ses_pickup: disable

Master:128 5001_slot_7 FG50012205400050 0

Slave :200 5001_slot_11 FG50012204400045 1 number of vcluster: 1

vcluster 1: work 169.254.0.2

Master:1 FG50012205400050

Slave :0 FG50012204400045

The actual cluster indexes have not changed but the operating cluster indexes have. Also, the HA heartbeat IP

address displayed for vcluster 1 has changed to 169.254.0.2.

 

Virtual clustering example output

The get system ha status command output is the same if a cluster is operating with virtual clustering turned on but with all virtual domains in virtual cluster 1. The following get system ha status command output example shows the same cluster operating as a virtual cluster with virtual domains in virtual cluster 1 and added to virtual cluster 2. In this example the cluster unit with serial number FG50012204400045 is the primary unit for virtual cluster 1 and the cluster unit with serial number FG50012205400050 is the primary unit for virtual cluster 2.

get system ha status

Model: 5000

Mode: a-p

Group: 0

Debug: 0

ses_pickup: disable

Master:128 5001_slot_7 FG50012205400050 0

Slave :200 5001_slot_11 FG50012204400045 1 number of vcluster: 2

vcluster 1: work 169.254.0.2

Master:1 FG50012205400050

Slave :0 FG50012204400045 vcluster 2: standby 169.254.0.1

Master:0 FG50012205400050

Slave :1 FG50012204400045

This example shows three sets of indexes. The indexes in lines six and seven are still used by the execute ha manage command. The indexes on lines ten and eleven are for the primary and subordinate units in virtual cluster 1 and the indexes on the last two lines are for virtual cluster 2.

 


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